In the images above, we show the layering of weathering effects on a
gargoyle statue mounted on the exterior of a building. Gargoyles are
subjected to interesting flow patterns because they were originally
used as decorative downspouts to direct rainwater away from building
foundations. Long term exposure causes a variety of effects on
exterior architectural details including discoloration, weakening,
erosion, biological growth, and fracture due to the freeze/thaw cycle.
The lost wax casting process is a common technique for
creating bronze statues. A roughly-shaped clay core is covered with
malleable wax, in which the shape and details of the final sculpture
are formed. When the wax sculpture is finished, a thick layer of clay
is spread over the wax. The model is slowly heated to allow the wax
to drip from the clay mold and then the mold is fired in a kiln.
Molten bronze is poured into the hardened clay mold. Finally, when
cool, the brittle clay is chipped away to reveal the bronze statue. A
sequence of images from our bronze statue simulation is shown below.
The outer layer of fired clay is broken away using a hammer tool. A
polish tool is used to clean and shine the model.