Ziqiang Liu Ce Liu Heung-Yeung Shum Yizhou Yu
Pacific Graphics 2002 [pdf] [ppt]
we study texture metamorphosis, or how to generate texture samples that smoothly transform from a source texture image to a target. We propose a pattern-based approach to specify the feature correspondence between two textures, based on the observation that many texture images have stochastically distributed patterns which are similar to each other. First, the user selects a pattern in the source and target textures, and establishes the “local feature correspondence” between these two patterns by specifying landmarks. Then, repeated patterns are automatically detected and localized in the source and target textures. The “pattern correspondence” between two textures is formulated as an integer programming problem and solved using the Hungarian algorithm. Finally, we obtain a warp function between two textures by combining “local feature correspondence” and “pattern correspondence”.
Inspired by the fascinating visual effect of general image morphing and the recent extensive work on texture synthesis, analysis and application, we are especially interested in texture morphing. However, texture metamorphosis is different from image metamorphosis because a texture image either is composed of many discernable and similar patterns or is highly random with irregular features. Thus, it is very difficult to manually specify correspondences between two textures. Unlike face morphing that needs feature correspondence on a small number of edges and corners, texture morphing would require feature correspondence on a very large number of feature points in the textures. Moreover, users may be confused about how to extract features and establish correspondences between them.
The flowchart of our system is shown below. (a) The user selects patterns and specifies correspondence by landmarks. (b) Pattern sets obtained interactively in source and target textures by detection and alignment algorithms. (c) Correspondence between patterns (red circle) in source texture and patterns (white square) in target texture. (d1) Landmark flow generated by combining pattern correspondence and pattern alignment. (d2) Warping and morphing