Source List for 18cWoman
This page lists sources mentioned on the 18cWoman email discussion list, with
bibliographic information, descriptions, and suggestions on where to
find the sources. For more information about the source list and how
to send me submissions, see About the 18cWoman
In my Copious Free Time, if I ever get any, I intend to reorganize
the source list so that you can list and search for items by author,
title, content, etc., etc. In the meantime, the organization is
pretty primitive, but you can still get a lot out of it just using the
search command in your Web browser.
Comments on this page and suggestions for how to improve it are
welcome. Send me email at Sue
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- Adair, Douglass and John A. Schutz, editors. Peter
Oliver's Origin and Progress of the American Rebellion: A Tory
View. San Marino, Cal.: Huntington Library, 1961.
- Heartily recommended for a Loyalist Boston man's view of
Revolutionary politics. It's worth tracking down through libraries
and used-book dealers.
Peter Oliver was the last royally appointed Chief Justice of
Massachusetts. His brother Andrew was Lieutenant Governor. They were
both related by marriage to Governor Thomas Hutchinson. Together the
three were lambasted as a royalist cabal by the Whigs.
As a Loyalist in exile in England, Oliver was highly motivated to
write down every nasty and embarrassing rumor about the New England
Whigs that he could gather. As outlandish as those remarks are, many
are actually very difficult to refute. And even if such a politically
biased book has to be read with a grain of salt, it's a fun read,
short, witty, and colorful. Most valuably, this is the record of a
real Loyalist who had a front-row seat for the turmoil in
Massachusetts and wrote just at the end of the war. --J. L. Bell
- Some passages relate to women's political actions and inactions
(homespun, pseudo-boycotts of tea).
- Andrews, Evangeline Walker (editor), with Charles McLean
Andrews). Journal of a Lady of Quality; Being the Narrative of a
Journey from Scotland to the West Indies, North Carolina, and
Portugal, in the years 1774 to 1776. Text on line at
the Out-of-Print Bookshelf of the Colonial Records Project of the
Department of Cultural Resources of the North Carolina Office of
Archives & History.
- Arnold, Janet. Patterns of Fashion 1:
Englishwomen's Dresses and their Construction, c. 1660-1860. New
York : Drama Book Specialists, 1972, ISBN 0-89676-026-X. London : MacMillan,
- Sketches and draughts of patterns for assorted lady's garments
from 1660-1860, with preface on tailoring during the period and
appendix on reproducing garments. Draughts are meticulously
researched and drawn. One of the best, if not the best, source for
patterns for 18th century lady's garments. Examples are drawn from
fine garments preserved in museums and private collections; no lower
class garments are included, although some draughts can be adapted to
lower their class. Note that draughts are from original garments and
must be scaled up and fitted to the individual before use; also
draughts contain oddities peculiar to the extant garment (e.g., Arnold
draws the exact placement of pleats in a petticoat, but it may be
equally authentic to reproduce the garments with pleats placed
slightly differently). --Sue Felshin
- Note: the above review was written before the publication of
Costume Close Up and
Fitting and Proper which
offer equally well researched draughts and cover different costumes.
- Generally available for sale, e.g., from assorted
sutlers, amazon.com, etc. Available
in some libraries.
- Ashelford, Jane. The Art of
Dress, Clothes and Society. A British National Trust book,
published by National Trust Enterprises, Ltd., and available in the
states from Harry N. Abrams, Inc., NY.
- This is color photographs of period portraiture and surviving
originals, with lots of commentary and documentation. Covers a rather
long time span in its 320 hardbound pages, from 1500 to 1914, with a
chapter on Children's Clothes and Clothes for Servants. Good
pictures, good text...lots of both. I liked it! --Dianne Tidy
- Contains assorted pictures of women in riding habits. See the
18cWoman archives circa Tue, 16 Nov 1999.
- Contains color picture of cherry and white stripe silk sack with
button front compère, also in Janet Arnold's Patterns of Fashion 1.
- Bailey, Colin B. Jean-Baptiste Greuze: The
Laundress. Getty Museum Studies in Art, 2000. 88 pages.
- About the Greuze painting The Laundress (available on
line at the
Getty). Contains 8 short essays about the painting including: The
Maidservant's changing Role in French Genre Painting; Chardin's
Cabinet Paintings and Other Influences on Greuze; Greuze's Naturalism
and the Genre Poissard; The Female Domestic as Seductress and, The
Brutal Business of Laundering Linen.
- Bain, Priscilla. First Catch Your
Hare: The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy. Prospect Books,
facsimile edition of Hannah Glasse's 1747 cookbook The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy, 19 Nov
2004, paperback, ISBN-10 1903018374, ISBN-13 978-1903018378.
- Barratt, Carrie Rebora, ed., et al. John Singleton Copley in America.
Metropolitan Museum of Art; ISBN 0810964929. 1995.
- Many of Copley's works well-reproduced, with essays and commentary.
Still available at some historical site bookshops. Also try museum and
ordinary bookshops, libraries, and interlibrary loan.
- Barratt, Carrie Rebora. John
Singleton Copley and Margaret Kemble Gage: Turkish Fashion in
18th-Century America. 1998.
- Available from the Timken Museum of Art, San Diego, CA; maybe also
- The author writes: "On occasion, presumably with a willing and
complicit, or inspirational, client, Copley dressed his sitters in
bold and fantastic costumes. Prints helped him in this regard and
showed him the way to dress his female sitters as if they were on
their way to a masked ball: as shepherdesses, as Rubens's wife (a
favorite character), as classical maidens, as Van Dykean mistresses,
and as Turkish sultanas. Yet this charade was carried out only on
canvas, for the sitters lived in a culture where such affairs were
- Bartlett, Virginia K. Keeping House: Women's Lives in
Western Pennsylvania 1790-1850. University of Pittsburg Press,
1994, ISBN 0-8229-3854-5.
- Bassett, Lynne. 'A Dull Business Alone': Cooperative
Quilting in New England, 1750-1850. In the 1999 Proceedings of
the Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife (Boston University Press,
- Bassett, Lynne Z. & Jack Larkin. Northern Comfort:
New England's Early Quilts: 1780-1850: From the Collection of Old
Sturbridge Village. 1998. ISBN 1-55853-655-8, 118 pages.
- Baumgarten, Linda. Eighteenth Century
Clothing at Williamsburg. The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation,
1986, ISBN 0-87935-109-8.
- Baumgarten, Linda, et al.
Costume Close Up. The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation,
2000. Paperback, ISBN 0896762262. Hardcover, ISBN 0879351888.
- Draughts of garment artifacts in the collection of Colonial
Williamsburg, accompanied by commentary on the artifacts and
explanations of details of 18th century dressmaking and tailoring
(fit, construction, stitches, etc., etc.).
- According to Amazon.com, the full title of the paperback is
Costume Close Up: Pattern & Construction of Antique Clothing
1750-1790; the hardback is Costume Close-Up: Clothing
Construction and Pattern, 1750-1790.
- On-line catalog: http://www.quitespecificmedia.com
- Baumgarten, Linda. What clothes reveal : the language of
clothing in colonial and federal America : the Colonial Williamsburg
Collection. Williamsburg, Va. : Colonial Williamsburg
Foundation in association with Yale University Press, New Haven, 2002.
- An associated exhibit "The Language of Clothing" is on display at
the DeWitt Wallace Museum in Colonial Williamsburg through, er, spring
of 2004 I think. Go see it; it's wonderful! --Sue Felshin
- Baumgarten, Linda. Plains, Plaid, and Cotton: Woolens for Slave
Clothing. In Ars Textrina.
- An excellent article ... The Latrobe sketch of 1798 in the
collection of Maryland Historical Society shows 2 women field slaves
in jacket/petticoat outfits with no stays -- the best visual image for
this important group of society. --Sally Queen.
- Beal, Joan C. English in Modern Times, 1700-1945.
London: Arnold, 2004, ISBN 0340761172.
- While it mainly covers England's English, the book does have some
good bits on pronunciation in the 18th century, the development of
Standard English, and a bibliography that had me wishing for a
research library. Ms. Beal's previous book was English
Pronunciation in the 18th Century: Thomas Spence's Grand Repository of
the English Language (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999 ISBN
0198237812), which I have not seen (but wish I had). --Amy Coddington
- Beales, Jr., Ross W. Nursing and Weaning in an
Eighteenth-Century New England Household. In Families
and Children, Peter Benes and Jane Montague Benes, editors.
Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife, Annual Proceedings 1985.
Boston: Boston University, 1987.
- Contrary to the reading of the same diary by an earlier scholar, Rose
Lockwood (whose study I haven't read), Beales doesn't see evidence for wet
nurses in this household. Rather, spinsters or widows stayed with the
Parkmans as nurses for 21 to 51 days. The times between the birth and the
mother's return to meeting ranged from 26 to 76 days. I don't see anything
stated about the first solid foods. The great majority of recorded weanings
from breast milk were between twelve and eighteen months. The earliest was
the result of the mother's medical emergency, and one child was weaned so
Parkman himself could have the benefit of his wife's breast milk in an
illness. Weaning usually involved putting the child in the care of a
neighbor woman or an older sister for a while. --J. L. Bell
- Beall, Karen. Cries & Itinerant Trades : a
Bibliography. Detroit Gale Research, Incorporated, 1979.
- In this book you can search for street criers by country. The
history of street crier images from each country is discussed from the
earliest up to the 20th century. Many images are included to provide
a sampling of the pictures from some sets of street criers and others
are simply listed. The problem with this book is that it is very hard
to find. One library in Chicago has it but it is for reference only.
- Bean, Susan. Bandanna: On the Indian Origins of an
All-American Textile. In Textiles in Early New England:
Design, Production, and Consumption, The Dublin Seminar for New
England Folklife Annual Proceedings 1997, Boston University Press,
- Beck, Thomasina. Embroidered Gardens.
Viking/Studio Book, NY, 1979.
- [Contains instructions for knotting.] --Barbara Delorey
- Contains instructions for knotting, but the instructions aren't
really very good: one of the diagrams is drawn incorrectly, and the
instructions aren't based on period sources. It contains almost
nothing in the way of documentation of knotting in the 18th century; I
find Scheuer & Maeders's annotated
reproduction of Saint Aubin's Art of the Embroiderer
more useful, even with what little it contains on knotting.
- Beckman, Jane G. First Aid for the
Corseted. Living History Magazine, Volume 2,
Number 4, 1986.
- Excerpt: "Removing a corset: Never suddenly unlace a corset that
has been worn for some time. ... First loosen it. ... Otherwise,
especially if the weather is hot the lady may get 'corset rush' and
pass out. This is because the blood suddenly floods into the
compressed tissues, momentarily diverting it from other uses, such as
feeding the brain. If you must cut a knotted one, cut only at the
knot, and loosen normally before removing. Medical emergencies
involving the corseted: If a lady becomes ill and sick to her stomach
while wearing a corset, take her to the restroom immediately. Remove
the corset...if she is actively being ill...remove it speedily but not
suddenly. Time the corset removal so that it happens between stomach
contractions, lessening the danger of choking, should she gasp for
- Belsey, Hugh. Gainsborough's beautiful
Mrs. Graham. Edinburgh: National Gallery of Scotland, 2003,
- A study of Gainsborough's painting The
Hon. Mrs. Graham. (One painting of the Hon. Mrs. Graham may be
viewed on the Web at the
National Gallery of Art and at
Olga's Gallery, and another painting at at CGFA and
- Benes, Peter, ed. Early
American Probate Inventories Boston University Press, Boston,
- Contains Hawley's The Meaning of
Absence: Household Inventories in Surrey County, Virginia,
1690-1715 and Ward's
Women's Property and Family Continuity in Eighteenth Century
- Bennett, Anna Grey. Unfolding Beauty - The Art of The
Fan. The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1988.
- Blackburn, Roderic, and Ruth Piwonka. Remembrance of
Patria: Dutch Arts and Culture in Colonial America 1609-1776.
Albany, NY: Albany Institute of History & Art, 1988, ISBN
- Documentation of sleeve links (cuff links) on pages 171, 189, 227,
228, and 231.
- Blackman Callie. Walking Amazons: The Development of the
Riding Habit in England During the Eighteenth Century. In
Costume, Vol 35, 2001.
- Blum, Stella. Eighteenth Century French Fashion Plates In
Full Color, 1778-1787. Dover, New York, 1982.
- At least one plate shows a polonaise jacket.
- Boback, John M. Indian Warfare, Household Competency,
and the Settlement of the Western Virgina Frontier, 1749 to
1794. Ph.D. dissertation, West Virginia University, 2007. PDF
- Excerpts from abstract:
... Indian-related violence and warfare had a profound influence on
the duration and nature of the frontier experience of those men and
women who settled in the western Virgia backcountry between 1749 and
1794. Recurrent attacks by Shawnees, Delawares, Mingos, and Indians
from the Great Lakes region caused such widespread death, destruction,
and depopulation that it prolonged the period of austere and difficult
living conditions for over forty years. This conclusion contradicts
the assertions of some recent schoars who have argued that crude
living conditions lasted for only a year or two on the Appalachian
frontier, and that economic conditions improved rapidly. While this
may have been the case in some sub-regions of Appalachia ..., this was
not the case in trans-Allegheny "West Virginia." ... By using
"competency" as a model for understanding household economics, it is
demostrated that although many settlers embraced the commercial
ecomony when possible, the rigors of life on the oftentimes-violent
frontier frequently left them no option but to shift their focus of
their household production away from commercial production in favor of
- Bogdonoff, Nancy Dick.
Handwoven Textiles of Early New England: The Legacy of a Rural
People 1640 - 1880. Stackpole, Harrisburg PA, 1975.
- Great schematic diagrams of bedfurnishings and construction
details. [This book and Cummings' Bed
Hangings] may be hard to find, but they'll be worth it.
Pursue them through interlibrary loan. --Sharon Burnston
- Bowles and Carver (publs). The Catchpenny Prints: 163
Popular Engravings from the Eighteenth Century. Reprinted by
- The engravings were originally published in London in the late
1780s and early 1790s. Now published under the name Old English
Cuts and Illustrations for Artists and Craftspeople (see next
- Bowles and Carver. Old English Cuts and Illustrations
for Artists and Craftspeople. Dover Books, ISBN: 0-486-22569-0.
- Available at
- A good source of many 'short' gowns [gowns which are shorter than
full length -SF]. It is a collection of 'Catchpenny' prints offered
throughout the 18c. There are numerous prints showing what looks like
a 'shortened gown'. It seems to me that the rural women are wearing
them, not the fashionable townies. --Deb Peterson
- Boyle, Joseph Lee. From Redcoat to Rebel: the Thomas
Sullivan Journal. Heritage Books, Inc., 1997, ISBN
- Mentions "iron boilers".
- Bradfield, Nancy. Costume in Detail, 1730-1930.
Harrap (1968), ISBN: 0245593209.
- Bradfield, Nancy. 900 Years of English Costume.
Crescent Books, 1987. ISBN 0-517-61670-X.
- Originally published in 1938 under the title Historical
Costumes of England 1066-1968. The 1987 copy is revised and reset,
with additional illustrations. The illustrations are wonderful line
drawings, the text is annotated with complete descriptions, colors,
fabrics, etc. A valuable quick reference. --Barbara Delorey
- Brawer, Nicholas A. British Campaign Furniture :
Elegance Under Canvas, 1740-1914. ISBN: 0810957116
- Mostly later, but some 18c.
- Brebner, John A. (compiled by). Desertions, Elopements
and Escapes, Volume 1: Personal descriptions of Scottish folk
extracted from the Aberdeen Journal 1765-1800. 2003. ISBN
0-9732381-0-0. Available from brebner.com.
- Breen, T. H. An Empire of Goods: The Anglicization of
Colonial America, 1690 - 1776. Journal of British
Studies, V. 25, No. 4, pp. 467-499.
- Breen, T. H. Narrative of Commerical Life: Consumption,
Ideology and Community on the Eve of the American Revolution.
William & Mary Qtrly, 3d Ser., V. 50, No. 3,
- Brilliant, Richard. Facing the New World, Jewish Portraits in
Colonial and Federal America. Prestel: New York,
- Produced as part of an exhibit proposed by the American Jewish
Historical Society and sponsored by The Jewish Museum of New York in
1997. The exhibit also traveled to the Maryland Historical Society in
1998. The book/catalog is prefaced by essays from the author and by
Ellen Smith, Curator of the American Jewish Historical
Society. Portraits were gathered from both public and private
collections and each is accompanied by a short biography. The book
also includes a chronology of "Highlights of Early American Jewish
History, 1585-1839", a map indicating Jewish communities established
by 1776, population tables, genealogical charts of prominent Jewish
families, and a selected bibliography of early American Jewish
history. I did not view the exhibit but have enjoyed studying the
protraits, many of them very familiar as having been painted by noted
artists such as Duyckinck, Wollaston, Earl, Rembrandt Peale and Sully.
- Brown, Charlotte. The Journal of Charlotte Brown, Matron
of the General Hospital, with the English Forces in America,
1754-1756. In Isabel M. Calder, Colonial Captivities,
Marches and Journeys (Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press,
Inc., 1935; reprinted 1967), 169-198.
- Brown, Jennifer S. H. Strangers
in Blood : Fur Trade Company Families in Indian
Country. University of British Columbia, 1980, ISBN:
- Social history of families in the Canadian fur trade in the 18th &
19th centuries. Available from Amazon.com as of March 2001
(University of Oklahoma Press).
- One of the two 'must read' books for those interested in women of
the fur trade. In the 18th century, all fur trade women were Native or
Metis (i.e., half-breed). Lots of fascinating genealogical
information. Describes the different interpretations of the validity
of the "blanket marriage" to the non-European "country wives" in more
depth than Van Kirk. --Angela Gottfred
- Brown, Kathleen M. Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, & Anxious
Patriarchs. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1996.
- Brown, William L., III. Thoughts on Men's Shirts in
America, 1750-1900. Gettysburg, PA : Thomas Publications, 1999.
- As a general resource I find the book very useful; however, only
four of the 19 shirts date to the 18th C, and of those only one is
dated as early as 1760. The others are 1790-1820. He also includes
smocks/frocks and overshirts, (19th C) and nightshirts (one dated
The construction of each item is detailed with text (including
provenance if known), photos and measured pattern drawings. Most of
the earlier shirts are common rather than fine. Brown divides the
shirts into two groups: the square cut pattern shirt of 1750-1860 and
the French pattern, or fitted shirt which dates from 1850-1900. There
are short introductory chapters which discuss the evolution of each
type and contemporary paintings and sketches which illustrate how the
shirts were worn.
The appendix reproduces shirt construction instructions from
The Workwoman's Guide. There is a bibliography which
includes many standard works on clothing (at least one which has been
discredited on this List) and a very short glossary (with rather
elementary terms like gusset, selvage, warp and woof).
- Browne, Clare and Jennifer Wearden. Samplers from the
Victoria & Albert Museum. London: Victoria and Albert
Museum, 1999, ISBN 1-85177-309-6.
- Buck, Anne. Clothes and the
Child: A Handbook of Children's Dress in England, 1500-1900.
New York : Holmes & Meier Publishers, Inc., 1996, ISBN
of the core costume library for people who are interested in
- Buck, Anne. Dress in Eighteenth
Century England. New York : Holmes & Meier, 1979, ISBN 0-8419-0517-7.
- Try used book stores.
- She actually mentions my people, the poor! --Kate
- Buel, Joy Day & Richard, Jr. The Way of Duty: A Woman &
Her Family in Revolutionary America. ISBN 0-393-31210-0.
- The correspondance of Mary Fish which illuminates her life/times
as a woman of her time, lots of stuff about having babies, raising
them, the heartaches therein, death and remarriages, etc. as well as
how the war impacted family life. --Victoria Hathaway
- Middle section made into quite a good TV movie under the title
Mary Silliman's War. --Sue Felshin
- Burnard, Joyce. Chintz and Cotton: India's Textile Gift to
the World. Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst NSW, 1994.
- Addresses development of paisley. See the 18cWoman archives circa
16 Aug 2001.
- Burnham, Harold B. and Dorothy K. Keep Me Warm One
Night: Early Handweaving in Eastern Canada. University of
Toronto Press, 1972.
- This whole book is wonderful, and was still in print about five
years ago. On pages 50 and 51 are pictures of two box looms held by
the Royal Ontario Museum. Unfortunately for the 18th Century Women -
one dates to mid-19th century and the other merely to 19th century.
Frankly, the late date is surprising to me, as I thought they went out
of use with the increasing use of cotton instead of linen. --Judy McPherson
- Burnston, Sharon Ann. Babies in the Well: An
Underground Insight into Deviant Behavior in 18th Century
Philadelphia. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography,
v. 102 #2, 1982.
- Check university libraries.
- The remains of two infants were interred in a sealed deposit of
household trash used to fill an abandoned privy pit on the 100 block
of Pine St, Phila, ca. 1760-85, which was excavated in 1973-4. The
trash deposit was a rich one, with examples of some of the finest
English ceramics ever made, and recovery included pins, dress hooks,
fruit seeds, and over 11,000 pieces of animal bone. Fifty two bones
turned out to be the remains of two neonates, one a full term and the
other of about 7 months gestation. The results of this examination
became the author's masters thesis; this article is a revised version.
Extensive research, exploring all conceivable possible scenarios, led
the author to conclude that the most likely explanation was
infanticide, probably associated with illegitimacy. The research
included medical, criminal and legal records, birth and death records,
burial records, midwifery practices, Guardians of the Poor records,
demographic questions and socio-economic issues.
- Burnston, Sharon Ann. Fitting and Proper. Scurlock
Publishing Co., RR 5, Box 347M, Texarkana TX 75503, 1-800-228-6389;
hardback edition, 1998, ISBN 1-880655-08-X, out of print (?); paperback
edition, March 2000, ISBN 1880655101.
- Describes assorted costumes in the collections of the Chester
County HIstorical Society, with draughts. Often referred to on 18cWoman
as "F&P". --Sue Felshin
- The clothing examined in it is specific to Chester County, PA and
much of it is of Quaker provenance, so you'll need to take that into
consideration. Do not, however, let that put you off. There's nothing
tremendously outrageous or out of the ordinary (there is a beautiful
gown worn believed to have been worn by a bride and two totally
different and interesting banyans, as well as a boy's first breeches
and coat worn by a distant relative of mine); the clothes were owned
by individuals from varying socioeconomic levels and, except for those
garments specifically identified as relating to the late 18th
century/early 19th century withdrawal of Quakers from general society,
they are representative of what average people were wearing during the
18th century. The garments are from a collection that does not often
see the light of day and if for no other reason than that, it's a
great reference. This is a fine book, well-researched, and worth every
penny! --Karen Mullian (See also Mullian's complete book review.)
- Burnston, Sharon Ann. An Analysis of A Eighteenth
Century Woman's Quilted Waistcoat. In Historic
Fashions by sallyqueenassociates.com, 2001. At Sharon
Ann Burnston: "At Home" in the Eighteenth Century.
- Burnston, Sharon Ann. What's in a Pocket?. In
Historic New England, v. 1 #4, Spring 2001, pp.6-8.
Available online at SPNEA.
- Bush, Nancy. Folk Socks. Loveland, Colorado:
- Has very clear illustrations of sock heels. --Carol Kocian
- Callcott, Margaret Law (editor). Mistress of
Riversdale. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.
- Edited and translated letters of Rosalie Stier (wife of George
Calvert) to her European family. She had 9 children, 5 of whom
survived to adulthood, and she lived at Riversdale from 1803 until her
death in 1821. The family estate was 729 acres to start (the family
bought more land through the years), in Prince George's County,
- Calloway, Colin G. The Scratch of the Pen: 1763 and the
Transformation of America. Oxford Press, 2006.
- Carlisle, Elizabeth Pendergast. Earthbound and
Heavenbent: Elizabeth Porter Phelps and Life at Forty Acres,
1747-1817. New York: Scribner, 2004; ISBN 0-7432-4440-0.
- (sort of)
- Biography of a Puritan woman of prosperous family in Hadley,
Massachusetts, based largely on her diary and correspondence, but with
few quotations from her writings.
- Carr, Lois Green and Lorena S. Walsh. The Standard of
Living in the Colonia Chesapeake. William & Mary
Quarterly, 3rd. Ser., Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 135-159.
- Carter II, Edward C., John C. Van Horne, and
Chas. E. Brownell, editors. Latrobe's View of America,
1795-1820. Yale University Press, 1985.
- The Latrobe sketch of 1798 in the collection of Maryland
Historical Society shows 2 women field slaves in jacket/petticoat
outfits with no stays -- the best visual image for this important
group of society. --Sally Queen
- It's a fascinating book I've mentioned here before--a great lot of
paintings of working class people of every stripe, from Philadelphia
to the South to Louisiana, including several of slaves. The women are
wearing matched pale blue jackets and petticoats--I believe I've read
somewhere that slaves were often dressed in matching components since
it was cheaper that way. I highly recommend finding this book,
secondhand or through inter-library loan. --Kate Johnson
- Chapman, Caroline and Jane Dormer. Elizabeth and
Georgiana: the Duke of Devonshire and his two Duchesses. John
Wiley & Sons, 2002.
- Chapman, Suzanne E. Historic Floral and Animal Designs
for Embroiderers and Craftsmen. Dover, 1978, ISBN 0486235262.
- Chodowiecki, Daniel. Die Reise von Berlin nach
Danzig. Das Tagebuch. Die Bilder. Langen-Müller, Mchn.,
1996, ISBN 3784426190. In German.
- [This book] is a pictorial journal he kept in (I think) 1773 of a
trip from... natch...Berlin to Danzig. It's really interesting
material-culture-wise but really low on female drawings which I found
disappointing. --Nancy Watt
- Clabburn, Pamela, OBE. The Needleworker's
Dictionary. William Morrow & Co., Inc., New York, 1976.
- Addresses development of paisley. See the 18cWoman archives circa
16 Aug 2001.
- Cleary, Patricia. Elizabeth Murray: A Woman's Pursuit of
Independence in Eighteenth-Century America (Amherst : U of MA
- Page 121 contains a quotation from Murray's letter to her friend
Christian Barnes, 4 Dec 1769, describing how she changed her hairstyle
on arriving in London from Boston.
- Cohn, Scotti. Liberty's children: stories of eleven
Revolutionary War children. Globe Pequot Press, c. 2004.
- Collingwood, Peter. The
Techniques of Sprang, Plaiting on Stretched Threads. Hardcover
edition: New York : Watson-Guptill, 1974. Paperback edition: The Lyons
Press, ISBN 1558219676.
- [This book] is back in print. I just ordered it through Barnes
and Nobel. Believe it or not the hard cover is cheaper than the paper
back. I ordered the hard cover but will have to wait 4 weeks for it,
but the savings was worth it. I think I saved about $12.00. --Cindy
- Washington's sash is on illustration 67 in the back of the book.
This has really good instructions on how to do it. A full gazillion
diagrams of how to hold each thread and where to put them next. VERY
thorough text. --Kate Henry
- Cometti, Elizabeth, editor.
The American Journals of Lt John Enys. The Adirondack
Museum. Syracuse University Press, 1976, ISBN0-8156-0121-2.
- Officer's sash shown in illus 3, across from page xxxv in the
introduction. Caption: Sword presented to Lt. Col. John Enys by his
fellow officers upon his retirement from the 29th Regiment of Foot.
Copeland, Peter. Working
Dress In Colonial and Revolutionary America. Westport, Conn.:
Greenwood Press, 1977.
- Corson, Richard. Fashions in Hair: The First Five
Thousand Years. Reprint published 2001, ISBN 0720610931.
- Cover quote: "The definitive text on hair fashions through the
ages, now brought up to the present day by the well-known fashion
historian Caroline Cox, Fashions in Hair is an essential work of
reference for historians of fashion, theatrical designers, hair
artists, illustrators, and anyone else interested in the changing
fashions in hair."
- Crowston, Clare Haru. Fabricating Women, the
Seamstresses of Old Regime France, 1675–1791. Univ. Duke
- Cummings, Abbott Lowell. Bed
Hangings: A treatise on fabrics & styles in the curtaining of beds
1650-1850. Society for the Preservation of New England
Antiquities, Boston, 1961. Second printing 1969. With essays by Nina
Fletcher Little and introduction by Jane C. Nylander (second edition
- Good set of definitions and many photos of original bed hangings.
[This book and Bogdonoff's
Handwoven Textiles of Early New England] may be hard
to find, but they'll be worth it. Pursue them through interlibrary
loan. --Sharon Burnston
edition available from Historic New England
- Cummins, Genevieve E. and Nerylla
D. Taunton. Chatelaines: Utility to Glorious
Extravagance. Antique Collectors' Club, October 1994,
hardcover: 312 pages, ISBN-10: 1851492062 ISBN-13: 978-1851492060.
- "Chatelaine" is a 19c term; the 18c term was "equipage".
- Many lovely photos of examples of all types, plain and fancy. See
p. 59: "During the 18th century it was not uncommon for items for
daily use to be attached by a ribbon to the waist." P. 191: the fancy
tools "are more likely for show and comply with the original meaning
of the word 'toy'—an exquisite trifle." And, "Reels attached to
a waist-hook for holding balls of thread (now known as spool knaves)
were popular in the 18th century." --Sherri Saines
- Cunnington, C. Willett, et al. The History of
Underclothes. Reprint edition by Dover Publications, 1992,
- Davis, Mildred J. Early American Embroidery. Crown
Publishers, 1974 (second edition), copyright 1969.
- This book comes pretty close to being a definitive study of 18th
century American needlework. It's one of my favorites. --Barbara Delorey
- Dawes, Ginny Redington with Olivia Collings. Georgian
Jewellery 1714-1830. Antique Collectors' Club Ltd., 2007 ISBN
- It's chock-full of eye-candy. Regrettably but not unexpectedly,
the objects shown are disproportionately post 1800. Nevertheless,
there are plenty of baubles from our century; one simply needs to read
the captions carefully. What's more disappointing is that here is yet
another jewelry book which is long on pretty pictures of the fronts of
things, but has little to say on how things were made, and too few
pictures of the sides and backs of the objects. The text is too-cute
in tone and not overly informative. Important objects, such as
sleeve-links, aren't even represented by a single example.
But what there is, is gorgeous.
So I'd say there are perhaps five or six of us on this liste for
whom this book is worth the $$ (even at the Amazon pre-publication
price). The rest can wait to get it through ILL, admire the pictures,
and save your money. --Sharon Burnston
- Dayton, Cornelia Hughes. Taking the Trade: Abortion and
Gender Relations in an 18th Century New England Village.
William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, 48 (1991), 19-49.
- Deetz, James. In Small Things Forgotten : An Archaeology
of Early American Life. Anchor, August 1, 1996, ISBN:
- Deetz, Patricia Scott and James. The Times of Their
Lives : Life, Love, and Death in Plymouth Colony. Anchor,
October 16, 2001, ISBN: 0385721536
- Derven, Daphne L.Wholesome, Toothsome, and Diverse:
Eighteenth-Century Foodways in Deerfield, Massachusetts. In
Foodways in the Northeast: Dublin Seminar for New England
Folklife, Annual Proceedings 1982, Boston University, Boston
- Dexter, Elisabeth Anthony. Colonial Women of Affairs:
Women in Business and the Professions in America Before 1776.
Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1931.
- This is mostly anecdotal rather than analytic, but offers a lot of
peeks at individual businesswomen. --J.L. Bell
- Dillon, Clarissa. A large, an useful, and a grateful
field: Eighteenth-Century Kitchen Gardens in Southeastern
Pennsylvania, The Uses of the Plants, and their Place in Women's
Work. Past Masters in
Early American Domestic Arts.
- The rewrite of her 1986 dissertation.
- Doddridge, Joseph. The Settlement
and Indian Wars of the Western Parts of Virginia and Pennsylvania,
1763-1783. Heritage Books Inc., Bowie, Maryland, 1988.
- Donington, Robert. Baroque Music - Style and Perfomance:
A Handbook. NY: W.W. Norton & Co., 1982, ISBN
- A most excellent and comprehensive interpretation of the primary
sources, specificly written for modern musicians. After looking at
all of the originals, this book helped to make sense of things. Mr.
Donington's quotes are accurate and his explanations are insightful.
I would highly recommend this book for any musician wanting to have a
better Baroque performance. --Karen Smock
- Dow, George Francis. The Arts and Crafts in New England
1704-1775 - Gleanings from Boston Newspapers relating to Painting,
Engraving, Silversmiths, Pewterers, Clockmakers, Furniture, Pottery,
Old Houses, Costumes, Trades and Occupations.
- Contains paragraph from the Boston Gazetter, Aug. 14,
1753, describing a spinning bee.
- Dow, George Francis. Everyday Life
in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. 1935.
- Dreher, Denise. From the Neck Up. ISBN 0-941082-00-8.
- Dukelskaya, Larissa and Andrew Moore (eds.). A capital
collection : Houghton Hall and the Hermitage. Yale U. Press
for the State Hermitage Museum and Paul Mellon Centre, 2002.
- [Contains a reproduction of] Charles Jervas' Mary Walpole,
Viscountess Malpas c. 1730-31, [which is] a sketch of a woman
in what looks like an English (rather than a sack) back gown, no
visible robings, nor visible stomacher, but visible spiral lacing.
The robings and stomacher may be missing simply because the artist
decided not to put so much detail in a crayon sketch. The catalogue
states that this sketch is one of the pieces still at Houghton Hall in
Norfolk, England (the book is about the collection of Sir Robert
Walpole, which was divided up in 1779 and part of it sold to Catherine
the Great of Russia). --Amy Coddington.
- Earle, Alice Morse. Two Centuries of Costume in America,
- Out of print.
- Contains a picture of a black silk quilted hood (very similar to
the Silver Age bonnet).
- Earle, Alice Morse. Home Life in Colonial Days.
First edition, The MacMillan Company, New York, 1898. Many reprint
editions by MacMillian and other companies.
- Earle, Alice Morse. Diary of Anna Green Winslow A Boston
School Girl of 1771. Applewood Books, Massachusetts 1996.
- Diary, written for her parents, of a girl of approximately 11
years of age who was sent to stay with relatives in Boston for what we
might call "finishing". She studied various forms of sewing and
needlework, and also reading and writing. There is one mention of
knitting lace, the only I have seen to date for the 18c. She makes
various interesting mentions of costume and fashion, but also displays
great dedication to religious thought and practice. --Sue Felshin
- Einberg, Elizabeth. Manners
& Morals; Hogarth and British Painting 1700-1760, London : Tate
Gallery, 1987, ISBN 0-946590-84-2.
- Ellis, Markman, ed. Tea and The Tea-Table in
Eighteenth-Century England. Pickering and Chatto, 2010,
ISBN-10: 1848930259, ISBN-13: 978-1848930254. A four-volume set:
- Literary representations of tea and the tea-table,
edited by Markman Ellis
- Tea in natural history and medical writing, edited by
- Tea, commerce and theEast India Company, edited by
- Tea and politics : the Boston Tea Party (1773) and the
Commutation Act (1784), edited by Ben Dew; index.
- This is a compendium of (parts of) primary documents and
commentary upon them. Expensive ($600 +), so you'll want to
interlibrary loan them!
- Esteban, Javier Cuenca. British Textile Prices,
1770–1831: Are British Growth Rates Worth Revising once
again?. The Economic History Review, New Series,
Vol. 47, Issue 1 (Feb., 1994), pp. 66–105.
- Esteban, Javier Cuenca. Further Evidence of Falling
Prices of Cotton Cloth, 1768–1816. The Economic
History Review, New Series, Vol. 48, Issue 1 (Feb. 1995),
- Fangel, Esther and Ida Winckler and Agnete Wuldern Madsen.
Danish Pulled Thread Embroidery. New York: Dover
Publications, Inc., 1977, ISBN 0-486-23474-6.
- Includes a few photos of Dresden work, probably 18c.
- Farnie, Douglas A. and David J. Jeremy, editors. The
Fibre that Changed the World : The Cotton Industry in International
Perspective. ISBN 0 19 925566.
- Feild, Rachel. Irons in the Fire, A History of Cooking
Equipment. Crowood, 1984.
- Gives a definition for Dutch ovens.
- She's writing about British cooking, and her understanding of
things American is sometimes a little simplistic. Also, published in
1984, this source begins to approach the 25-year rule for a secondary
source. However I've always found it a very useful reference work.
- Fifield, Rebecca L. Women's Dress During the American
Revolution : an Interpretive Guide. Brigade of the American
- Finger, John R. Tennessee Frontiers:
Three Regions in Transition. Indiana University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-253-33085-5.
- Dr. Finger is Emeritus Professor of History at the University of
Tennessee. Roughly half of the book covers pre-1800 Tennessee, and
there is frequent discussion of the native people, primarily Cherokee,
and also much discussion of Tennessee during the Revolutionary War. I
don't know enough about the area to offer a solid evaluation, but
while I was browsing through it, it seemed pretty good to me. --Mary Svrjcek
- de Finiels, Nicolas. An Account of Upper
Louisiana. Edited by Carl J. Ekberg and William E. Foley,
translated by Carl J. Ekberg. U. of Missouri Press, 1989.
- de Finiels was a French military engineer assigned to the Louisiana
Territory at the very end of our period of study, 1796 or so. He observed
and noted literally EVERYTHING, from population percentages (French,
Spanish, American, NA, slave, etc.) to cultural mores, homes, gardening,
military matters, fortifications, social and religious life, changing
fashions in clothing, etc. etc.--MARVELOUS stuff. --Kate Johnson
- Finley, Gerald. George Heriot : Postmaster-Painter of
the Canadas. University of Toronto : Toronto, 1983.
- There's a picture of a Quebec woman in a diagonally-striped
bedgown in Heriot's painting Minuets Des Canadiens, c.
1801, on p. 53. --Angela Gottfred
- Fischer, David Hackett. Albion's Seed: Four British
Folkways in America. New York : Oxford University Press, 1989
(or March 1991?). ISBN: 0195069056
- Discusses four various cultures that settled the colonies:
Puritan/New England, Cavalier/Virginia-Maryland, Quaker/Pennsylvania,
and Scots-Irish/Frontier. Includes some discussion of mealtime
protocol (who shares the table with whom).
- Fischer, David Hackett. Paul Revere's Ride. New York
: Oxford University Press, 1994.
- Available on tape. Contact Books On Tape at 1-800-88-BOOKS or http://www.booksontape.com.
- Fox, Claire E. Pregnancy, Childbirth and Early Infancy
in Anglo-American Culture: 1675-1830. Unpublished University
of Pennsylvania doctoral dissertation.
- Frost, J. William. The Quaker Family in Colonial
America: A Portrait of the Society of the Friends. New York:
St. Martin's Press, 1973.
- Garrett, Elizabeth Donaghy. At Home, The American Family
1750-1870. Abrams, New York, 1990.
- I don't have a copy myself--but I believe that [this] wonderful
book [...] has period quotes about this housekeeping practice [of
putting all the furniture up against the wall and calling it a "room
at rest"]. --Laurie Kittle
- Gates, Charles M. Five Fur
Traders of the Northwest : Being the Narrative of Peter Pond and the
Diaries of John Macdonell, Archibald N. McLeod, Hugh Faries, and
Thomas Connor. Minnesota Historical Society : St. Paul,
- The journals of five fur traders associated with the North West
Company and its predecessors, who operated in Minnesota, Wisconsin, &
Manitoba in the period 1770-1815. The narrative of Peter Pond is
notable for its account of the F&I War and the unique 'Yankee' speech
pattern captured in his very idiosyncratic spelling. --Angela
- Gehret, Ellen. Rural Pennsylvania Clothing.
- [This book] is good though a lot of it is later... --Kate Johnson
- George, M. Dorothy. London Life in the Eighteenth
Century. Capricorn Books, New York, 1965. Has been reprinted
- Appendix VI, p. 427 includes a list of Occupations of Married
Couples reported in Sessions Papers.
- Gilpin, Thomas. Exiles in
Virginia: With Observations on the Conduct of the Society of Friends
during the Revolutionary War, comprising the Official Papers of the
Government Relating to that Period. 1777—1778.
Philadelphia: Printed for the subscribers, 1848, on the Web at
Google Books. Reprinted by Kessinger Publishing, LLC, July 25,
2007, ISBN-10: 054824054X, ISBN-13: 978-0548240540, as Exiles in
Virginia: With Observations on the Conduct of the Society of Friends
during the Revolutionary War.
- See also Vining's The Virginia
Exiles, a novel based on material in this text.
- Gingerich, Melvin. Mennonite Attire Through Four
Centuries. The Pennsylvania German Society, Breinigsville,
- Gilgun, Beth. Tidings from the 18th
Century. First edition, Texarkana, TX : Rebel Publishing, 1993, ISBN
1-880655-04-7. Second edition, Texarkana, TX : Scurlock Publishing, 1999.
- This is your best all-around introduction to reenacting in book
form. It contains simple patterns and descriptions of clothing,
equipment, and activities -- almost everything you need to know to get
started, short of information particular to your unit. Cautions:
- Tidings covers the years from the mid 1700s to the early 1800s, so
not all information is applicable to the American Revolution. The
author's primary era is the French and Indian War and there is a
slight bias toward that era, but most information is general enough
to apply though the Revolution.
- There are two or three known typos in patterns. Just little
things, though. [Track down and list here.]
- The front-opening toddler's gown should only be worn by boys.
- Glanville, Philippa, and Jennifer Faulds Goldsborough.
Women Silversmiths 1685-1845. Washington, D.C.: National
Museum of Women in the Arts in association with Thames and Hudson, 1990.
- ... it is gorgeous. Zoffany's "Portrait of Louisa Courtauld" is
on the front cover, and on the back is a photo of one of her
magnificent tea caddies.
- The book is not only another wondrous exploration of women doing
unusual things and therefore broadening our horizons (Help Stamp Out
"Women Never"...), but the photos of the collection of artifacts are
an education in material culture in and of themselves. Chalices,
goblets, tankards, teapots, coffee pots, flatware, baby rattles, toast
keepers, sugar tongs, etc. etc. etc.
- Yum... --Kate Johnson
- Glasse, Hannah. The Art of Cookery
Made Plain and Easy. 1747. For facsimile edition, see First Catch Your Hare: The Art of Cookery Made
Plain and Easy. For more cookbooks, see RevList: 18th
Century Cooking Resources.
- Goodwin, Rutherfoord. A
Briefe & True Report Concerning Williamsbug in Virginia.
Colonial Williamsburg. Third edition, February 1941. Fourth edition,
- It's a charmer, done on laid paper with marbled paper end boards
and a leather spine, long s's, footers, old type faces. It has maps,
views of public buildings, etc.--everything, in fact, to give it the
flavor of an old book. --Kate Johnson
- I'll quote from the preface of the fourth edition of April, 1941:
This Appendix provides a complete Annotation of the Text, interspersed
with pertinent Quotations from the Works and Sources consulted. It also
contains true Copies of the Acts passed by the General Assembly of
Virginia in 1699, 1701, and 1705 for directing the Building of the City
of Williamsburg and the Capitol, as well as the text of the City's
Charter of 1722. . . Again individual Types were employed, including the
archaic Letters, Ligatures, and Ornaments of the early Printers. The
Books were printed on special Paper which, though Machine-made, closely
resembles the Hand-made Products of William Parks' Paper Mill . . .
The author, Rutherfoord Goodwin, was the son of the Reverend William
Archer Rutherfoord Goodwin, Rector of Bruton Parish and Father of
Colonial Williamsburg. Rutherfoord worked in the Research department and
created the various editions of Briefe and True. It was our first guide
The documents are good. He was raised by a stickler. To quote the good
If there is one firm guiding and restraining word which should be
passed on to those who will be responsible for the restoration in the
future, that one word is integrity. A departure from truth here and
there will inevitably produce a cumulative deterioration of authenticity
and consequent loss of public confidence. Loyalty demands that this
principle of integrity be adhered to.
- Gousse, Suzanne and André. Costume in New France
from 1740 to 1760, a Visual Dictionary. La Fleur de Lyse, 1999,
- Available via the Gousses' Web site, La
Fleur de Lyse.
- Greenfield, Amy Butler. A Perfect Red: Empire,
Espionage, and the Quest for the Color of Desire. New York:
HarperCollins Publishers, 2005.
- According to the book jacket:
A Perfect Red recounts the colorful history of cochineal,
a legendary red dye that was once one of the world's most precious
commodities. Treasured by the ancient Mexicans, cochineal was sold in
the great Aztec marketplaces, where it attracted the attention of the
Spanish conquistadors in 1519. Shipped to Europe, the dye created a
sensation, producing the brightest, strongest red the world had ever
seen. Soon Spain's cochineal monopoly was worth a fortune.
Desperate to find their own sources of the elusive dye, the
English, French, Dutch, and other Europeans tried to crack the enigma
of cochineal. Did it come from a worm, a berry, a seed? Could it be
stolen from Mexico and transplanted to their own colonies? Pirates,
explorers, alchemists, scientists, and spies—all joined the
chase for cochineal, a chase that lasted more than three centuries.
- Guy, John. Woven Cargoes, Indian Textiles in the
East. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1998.
- For those interested in Indian chintz and other textiles I would
recommend [this book]. While the subject is cloth produced for the
Eastern (Asian) market, it has full color illustrations of gorgeous
textiles and an informative text as to the locations of textile
centers of production in India, and their identifying
characteristics.e.g., the Coromandel Coast. Some of the textiles made
their way west to Europe, particularly via the Dutch East India
Company. --Joyce McDonald
- Haddix, Margaret Peterson. Running Out of Time.
Hardcover edition: Simon & Schuster (Juv), 1995, ISBN 0689800843.
Paperback edition: Aladdin Paperbacks, 2000, ISBN 0689838603.
for young people (1 recommendation).
- The cleverest use of time travel into US history in a novel
that I've seen is [this book]. I recommend it to anyone involved in
historical reenacting, young and old, even though it starts in the
1840s. --J. L. Bell
- Hagist, Don. Women of the British Army. In the
Brigade Dispatch in four parts: Volume XXIV, No. 3
(Summer, 1994), p 2–10; Volume XXIV, No. 4 (Autumn, 1994), p
9–17; Volume XXV, No. 1 (Winter, 1995), p 11–16; and
Volume XXV, No. 2 (Spring, 1995), p 8–14. In Minerva
Quarterly Report on Women in the Military, Volume 13, No. 2.
On the Web at
- Harvey, A.D. Sex In Georgian England. Phoenix
Press. ISBN 1-84212-273-8.
- Hart, Avril, et al. Fashion in Detail. Rizzoli
International Publications, 1998, ISBN 084782151X.
Part of the core costume library for people who are interested in
- Must-have collection of detailed photographs in luscious color of
portions of fashionable 17th and 18th garments, with line drawings of
the entire garment, front and back, and a short description of each
item. Sections focus on sleeves, lace, buttons, etc. --Sue Felshin
- Delicious [...] though I wish it also had photos of the whole
garment. --Kate Johnson
- Hartkamp-Jonxis, Redactie Ebeltje. SITS Oost West
Relaties im Textiel. Uitgeverij Waanders-Zwolle.
- This excellent book is the result of an exhibit done in the
Netherlands on Dutch East India Company Textiles. A rough translation
of the title would be "Chintz, Textile relations between East & West".
This book covers chintz fabrics used in home furnishings and costume.
Many photographs, some in color, illustrate the text as well as maps
and articles. Unfortunately the latter are written in Dutch. If you
know some German and some English, the catalogue section is easy to
translate. I'd love someone to translate the articles --
like the one on 18th century textile/fabric definitions! That's above
my reach! -- but wouldn't it be wonderful to have their fabric names
and descriptions. --Kate Emerson
- Hawley, Anna L. The Meaning of Absence: Household
Inventories in Surrey County, Virginia, 1690-1715. In Early American Probate
- Hefford, Wendy. The Victoria & Albert Museum's Textile
Collection, Designs for Printed Textiles in England from 1750 to
1850. Abbeville Press Inc, NY, 1992.
- Out of print?
- Hersch, Tandy and Charles Hersch. Cloth and Costume
1750-1800: Cumberland County, Pennsylvania (Heritage Series).
Cumberland County Historical Society, ISBN 0963892320, hardcover.
- As noted in the preface... "using Cumberland County estate
inventories, wills, deeds, administration papers, indictments, tax
lists, newspapers and manuscripts..."
- Great analysis of gowns, shortgowns, and bedgowns. --Sally Queen
- Very interesting analysis of what appears to be a very complete
set of probate inventories. There is lots and lots of information in
this book about what ordinary people, in what must have been a pretty
rural place, possessed as far as cloth and clothing is concerned.
- There are chapters drawing on inventories of women's clothing,
men's clothing, various lists of textiles available for sale in
Cumberland County, trades related to textiles and clothing etc. It's
a difficult book to find because it had a very small press run.
- According to amazon.com, also
by Tandy Hersch: 18th Century Quilted Petticoats in the
American Quilt Study Group's journal Uncoverings. --Sue
- Contains photograph of blue and white striped cotton middle or working
class gown, probably 3rd quarter of 18th c., in the collection of the
Philadelphia Museum of Art. Description of gown posted to list in message
dated Wed, 19 Sep 2001 21:56:08 -0400.
- Hersh, Tandy. Quilted Petticoats in Pieced
by Mother: Symposium Papers, ed. Jeanette Lasansky. Lewisburg,
PA : The Oral Traditions Project of the Union County Historical
Society, 1988, pp. 5-11.
- Hersh, Tandy. Eighteenth Century Quilted Silk Petticoats
Worn in America in Uncoverings 1984, Mill Valley,
CA : American Quilt Study Group, 1985, pp 83-98.
- Hersh, Tandy. Eighteenth Century Quilted
Petticoats. In Women's Dress 1750-1780, Tidy's
Symposium, University of Delaware, Feb. 13, 1993.
- Hess, Karen, transcribed and annotated by. Martha
Washington's Booke of Cookery. Columbia
University Press, April, 1996, ISBN: 0-231-04931-5 (paperback).
- The recipes in the book are actually 17th century and earlier and
most were old-fashioned or obsolete by the 18th century, but Karen
Hess's annotations are invaluable for interpreting 18th century
ingredients and procedures. I use this book not as a cookbook but as
a reference manual. Through it I have found the answers to such
questions as "what is isinglass and how can I approximate it with
modern ingredients?", "how much bread is in a penny loaf and what
kind?", "how big are modern eggs compared to 18c eggs", and much, much
more. (If it's a 16th/17th century cookbook, why is it "Martha
Washington's"?, I hear you cry. She is the most famous person ever to
have owned it—she inherited it from her first husband's family.
It's somewhat doubtful that she ever used it, but that's marketing for
you.) --Sue Felshin
- Hill, Frances. Adam's Luxury & Eve's Cookery.
1746. Facsimile edition by Prospect Books, 1983, ISBN 0 907325 14 9.
- It's a marvellous little book, the first half deals with all
aspects of gardening with a month by month breakdown of jobs to do
and a section on specific vegetable and fruit (and fungi) growing
alphabetically from artichoke to turnip. --"Grymm"
- Hilton, Wendy. Dance and Music of Court and Theatre:
Selected Writings of Wendy Hilton. Pendragon Press, 1997.
(Includes facsim. reprint of Dance of Court and Theatre: The
French Noble Style, 1690-1725.)
- This book is the bible of baroque dance. All her information
comes from primary sources (and lots of it is reprints from primary
sources) and I have read and practised from the primary description of
women's honours (that would be a curtsey) that is in there, which is
(I think) from Tomlinson, but might be Rameau. She has to interpret
what is meant sometimes, but she is generally accepted by the historic
dance community to be the most correct interpretation available. If
you do a search on Wendy Hilton you will see. --Nancy Watt
- Hood, Adrienne D. The Gender Division of Labor in the
Production of Textiles in Eighteenth-Century, Rural Pennsylvania
(Rethinking the New England Model). Journal of Social History,
27 (1994), pp. 537–61.
- Discusses gender divisions in home textile manufacture.
- Hood, Adrienne D. The Material World of Cloth:
Producting and Use in Eighteenth-Century Rural Pennsylvania.
The William and Mary Quarterly, 3d Series, Vo. LIII,
No. 1, January 1996, pp. 45–66
- Horn, Pamela. Flunkeys and Scullions: Life Below Stairs
in Georgian England. Sutton Publishing, 328 pages, ISBN
- Horne, Field, editor. The Diary of Mary Cooper: Life On
a Long Island Farm, 1768-1773, (Oyster Bay, NY : 1981).
- Mrs. Cooper seems to have gone through periods of depression, as
suggested by the entry of July 1769.
- Howard, Bryan Paul. Had On and Took with Him: Runaway
Indentured Servant Clothing in Virginia, 1774-1778. Texas
A&M University PhD. Dissertation, 1996.
- Hummel, Charles F. (Winterthur Museum Curator). Floor
Coverings Used in 18th Century America. In Imported and
Domestic Textiles in 18th Century America, proceedings of the
Roundtable on Museum Textiles, The Textile Museum, Washington, D.C.,
1975, pp. 72 & ff.
- Hunnisett, Jean. Period Costume for Stage & Screen:
Patterns for Women's Dress 1500-1800. Players Press (March 1,
1991), ISBN: 0887346103.
- Irving, Washington. A History of New York. 1809.
- Published under the pseudonym Diedrich Knickerbocker.
- Contains tale describing pockets worn on the outside of a woman's
clothing, apparently during the 1600s: Book III, Chapter I, explains:
"It was in the year of our Lord 1629 that Mynheeer Wouter Van
Twiller was appointed governor of the province of Nieuw
Nederlandts" ... Chapter IV: "In which is recorded the
Golden Reign of Wooter Van Twiller, Chapter IV Containing further
particulars of the Golden Age, and what constituted a fine lady and
gentleman" ... Paragraph 3: "These were the honest days in
which every woman staid at home, read the Bible, and wore pockets -
ay, and that too of a goodly size, fashioned with patchwork into many
curious devices, and ostentatiously worn on the outside. [...] but we
must not give too much faith to all these stories, the anecdotes of
those remote periods being very subject to exaggeration.
- I highly recommend reading the entire History because
it is a very funny story...and I am afraid, the start of many
reenacting myths. --Dianne Tidy
- Ivinski, Patricia, and Harry Payne and Kathryn Calley Galitz
and Richard Rand. Farewell to the Wet Nurse: Etienne Aubry and
Images of Breast-Feeding in 18th C France. Guide to the 1998
exhibit at the Clark Art Institute in Williamstown MA. ISBN
- Jacobs, Wilbur R. Diplomacy and Indian Gifts, the
French-English Rivalry for Indian Loyalties During the French and
Indian War Years, 1748-1763. First edition: CA: Stanford,
1950. Reprint: Wennawoods, RR2, Box 529C Goodman Road, Lewisburgh, PA
17837, 2001, ISBN 1-800-796-1702.
- Jarrasse, Dominique.
18th Century French Painting. Paperback edition:
Terrail, October 1999, ISBN 2879392039.
- Contains a good reproduction of the painting The Village Betrothal by Greuze.
- Johnson, Cathy (Kate). Who Was I?: Creating a Living
History Persona. Excelsior Springs, MO: Graphics/Fine Arts Press.
- Johnson, Cathy (Kate). Walk Softly: Moccasins in the
Context of the Primary Documents. Excelsior Springs, MO: Graphics/Fine Arts Press.
- Johnson, E.D.H.
Paintings of the British Social Scene: From Hogarth to
Sickert. Reissue edition: Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd, 2000,
- 18 Aug 2000: According to amazon.com, this book is about to be
reissued and is available by special order.
- Contains reproduction of Plucking the
- Johnson, Nichola.
Eighteenth Century London. The Museum of London, HMSO,
- Contains reproduction of City
- Kenton, Donna Flood. Hand Knit Hose,
a Knitted Stocking Pattern.
- Instructions on how to hand-knit hose, with illustrations, some
history of hose, and bibliography. Available at http://www.dabbler.com/ndlwrk/stocking.html.
See discussion in the 18cWoman archives in early November, 1999.
- Kettell, Russell Hawes, ed. Early American Rooms.
New York: Dover Pub, 1967. Reprint of the 1936 edition.
- Khmeleva, Galina and
Carol R. Noble. Gossamer Webs, the History and Techniques of
Orenburg Lace Shawls.
- According to the book, Orenburg lace shawls, which are knit, date
back to the 17th century as peasant wear and were popularized at least
in part by Catherine the Great. About the book: "It's more
interested in modern history, and keeping the art alive."
- Kidwell, Claudia Brush. Short
Gowns. In DRESS, the Journal of the Costume
Society of America, vol. 4, 1978, pp. 30-65.
include this book in the core costume library because it is the
seminal work on "shortgowns". If you are not specifically
interested in shortgowns, it is not necessary to read it.
- Describes the garment sometimes known as the "short
gown" or "shortgown". Report of her research, with
quotes from original documents, B&W and color reproductions of
artwork of the era, and B&W and color photographs of
approximately-dated original garments. --Sue Felshin
- Kidwell, Claudia Brush. Are
Those Clothes Real? Transforming the Way Eighteenth-Century Portraits
are Studied. In DRESS, the Journal of the
Costume Society of America, volume 24, 1997: 3 - 15.
- Art does not always depict reality.
- King, Donald and Santina Levey. The Victoria &
Albert Museum's Textile Collection: Embroidery in Britain from 1200 to
1750. London: Victoria & Albert Museum, 1993, ISBN
- Klinger. Sketchbook
'76 and Distaff Sketchbook. 1974.
- Suitable as firewood. Unless the ink is toxic.
- Seriously, these books may have been the cutting edge of research
in their day, but they are now woefully obsolete. Some depicted items
simply did not exist in the Revolutionary era. When items did exist,
they are often depicted with incorrect details and/or out of scale.
Avoid using these books (or use them only to research bicentennial
reenacting). Many other, better resources are now available to
reenactors. To replace the Distaff Sketchbook, get
Whatever Shall I Wear?. If
you want just a single volume to use in place of the men's '76
Sketchbook, your best bet remains Tidings. And to be fair, the
'76 Sketchbook isn't as horrendous as the Distaff
- Kluger, Marilyn. The Joy of Spinning. New York:
Simon and Schuster, 1971, ISBN 0671208594. Paperback edition ISBN
- Page 80 discusses "wheel dollies", also known as "spinning
- Koda, Harold and Andrew Bolton and Mimi Hellman.
Dangerous Liaisons: Fashion and Furniture in the Eighteenth
Century. Metropolitan Museum of Art Publications, 2006, ISBN
- Catalog from the exhibit Dangerous
Liaisons: Fashion and Furniture in the Eighteenth Century,
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY, April 29,
2004–September 6, 2004.
- Kopperman, Paul. The British High Command and Soldiers'
Wives in American, 1755 - 1783. Originally published in the
Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research,
- Kraak, Deborah. Early American Silk Patchwork
Quilts. In Textiles in Early New England: Design,
Production, and Consumption, The Dublin Seminar for New England
Folklife Annual Proceedings, 1997. Boston : Boston University,
- An excellent article on early pieced quilts. --Deborah Pulliam
- A Lady.
The Lady's Guide to Plain Sewing [Book I]. ISBN 0-9640161-0-9.
- Available directly from the author at Kannik's Korner: books and from
assorted other merchants to reenactors.
- A Lady.
The Lady's Guide to Plain Sewing [Book II]. ISBN
- Available directly from the author at Kannik's Korner: books and from
assorted other merchants to reenactors.
- A Lady. The Workwoman's
Guide. Opus Publishing, 1986, ISBN 0-940983001
- Landon, Mary Taylor and Susan Burrows Swan. American
Crewelwork. The Macmillan Company, hardcover, 1970.
- Laver, James. The Age of Illusion: Manners and Morals
1750-1848. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1972.
- Leavitt, Judith Walzer. Brought to Bed: Child-bearing in
America 1750–1950. New York: Oxford University Press,
1986, ISBN: 0195038436.
- Review at
- Lederer, Richard M., Jr. Colonial American English: a
Glossary. Essex, Conn.: Verbatim Books, 1985, ISBN 0-930454-19-7.
- Leechman, Douglas. Vegetable Dyes: How To Make Your Own
Dyes From Bark, Leaves, Berries, Nuts, Fruit and Flowers From North
American Plants. St. Paul : The Webb Publishing Co., 1945.
- Lemay, J.A. Leo (ed). Robert Bolling Weds Anne Miller,
Love and Courtship in Colonial Virginia, 1760. University Press
of Virginia, 1990.
- Contains some love letters.
- Lemire, Beverly. Fashion's Favourite: The Cotton Trade and
the Consumer in Britain, 1660-1800. Oxford, Eng : The Pasold Fund
and Oxford Univ. Press, 1991, ISBN 0-19-921062-4.
- Lemire, Beverly. Redressing the History of the Clothing
Trade in England: Ready-made Clothing, Guilds, and Women Workers,
1650-1800. In Dress (Journal of the Costume
Society of America), Vol. 21, 1994, pp. 61-74.
- Contains pictures of 18th century quilted petticoats.
- Lemire, Beverly. Dress, Culture and Commerce: The
English Clothing Trade before the Factory, 1660-1800. 1997.
- Has chapters discussing "Military Markets: dressing for war," and
"Popular fashion and second-hand clothing."
- Lester Joan. We Didn't Make Fancy Baskets Until We Were
Discovered: Fancy Basket Making in Maine. In A Key into
the Language of Woodsplint Baskets, Ann McMullen and Russell
G. Handsman, editors. Washington, CT: American Indian Archeological
- Levey, Santina M. Lace, A
History. Victoria and Albert Museum Great Britain, Leeds.
1983. ISBN 0-901286-15-x.
- Figure 392 shows 18c lace which might be called crochet. It consists
solely of chain stitch going every which way.
- Liles, J.N. The Art and Craft of Natural Dyeing:
Traditional Recipes for Modern Use. Knoxville : U. of Tennessee
- The cool thing is that Liles is himself a reenactor, so he
understands how completely insane we all are, and what it is we're
after... --Kate Johnson
- I can't recommend it enough -- he was a reenactor, and his recipes
and descriptions are fairly well geared toward those of us who are
trying to understand what dyes were most commonly used in the 18th
century. --Mara Riley
- MacTaggart, P. and R.A., Some Aspects of the Use of
Non-Fashionable Stays. In Strata of Society: Proceedings
of the Seventh Annual Conference of the Costume Society, April
6–8, 1973, p. 20–28. London, Victoria and Albert Museum,
- Almost all of the examples are English, including the leather stays.
- Maeder, Edward (organizer). An
Elegant Art: Fashion & Fantasy in the Eighteenth Century. Los
Angles County Museum of Art. New York : Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1983.
of the core costume library for people who are interested in
- Contains reproduction of Chodowiecki print, Women's Room for
Sewing, Washing, and Ironing (1770), p. 29.
- Check out the engraving on page 46 by Nicholas de Launay called
He Applied a Kiss to my Hand, Which I Sensed. The woman
with her back to us (the one not being kissed!), appears to
have a sack back gown on which has been polonaised. The engraving is
1777 and the woman appears to be upperclass. The engraver is French,
so I would assume the woman in the engraving is as well. --Peggy
- Main, Gloria. Probate Records as a Source for Early
American History. William & Mary Quarterly, 3rd
series, 32 (1975).
- Main, Gloria L., and Jackson T. Main. Economic Growth
and the Standard of Living in Southern New England, 1640 -
1774. Journal of Economic History, Vol. XLVIII,
No. 1 (Mar. 1988) pp. 27-46.
- Main, Gloria. The Standard of Living in Colonial
Massachusetts. Journal of Economic History,
Vol. XLIII, No. 1 (March 1983), pp. 101-108.
- Main, Gloria. Inequality in Early America: The Eficence
from Probate Records of Massachusetts and Maryland.
Journal of Interdisciplinary History, VII:4 (Spring, 1977)
- Main, Gloria. Gender, Work and Wages in Colonial New
England. William & Mary Qtrly, 3d Ser.,
Vol. LI, No. 1, pp. 39 - 66.
- Malley, Richard C. Graven by the Fishermen Themselves:
Scrimshaw in Mystic Seaport Museum. Mystic, CT: Mystic Seaport
- It has many gorgeous busks in it in the chapter Functional
Forms: Utilitarian Scrimshaw. --Kate Johnson
- Margaret, Mary E. Gale and T. Ordoñez.
Indigo-Resist Prints from Eighteenth-Century America: Technology
and Technique. In Clothing and Textiles Research
Journal, Vol. 22, No. 1-2, 4-14 (2004).
- Abstract available at Sage
- Martin, Ann Smart. Buying into the World of Goods; Early
Consumers in Backcountry, Virginia. Johns Hopkins Press, 2008.
Martin's book is based upon the papers of merchant John Cooke.
- Mayer, H. A. Belonging to the Army: Camp followers and the
Military Community during the American Revolution. Ph.D. dissertation
(College of William and Mary, 1990).
- Mayer, Holly A. (Holly Ann). Belonging to the Army: Camp
Followers and Community During the American Revolution.
Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 1996, ISBN:
1570033390. Softcover edition, 1999.
- Mays, David, editor. The Disappointment, or, the Force
of Credulity by Andrew Barton (Pseudonym of Thomas Forrest:) A Critical
Edition of the First American Drama. Gainesville FL: The
University Presses of Florida, 1976.
- This ballad comedy was never performed, but is interesting in that
it is based on a true story and the characters based on actual people
who lived in Philadelphia in 1767. Many of them have accents that are
distinct to their ethnicity. --Paul Dickfoss
- McCalman, Iain (editor), Paul A. Pickering (editor)
Historical Re-enactment: From Realism to the Affective
Turn. Palgrave Macmillan, March 2, 2010, ISBN-10: 0230576125,
- From the publisher's website: "Explores how Historical
Re-enactment seeks to portray the past in various forms, holding
perhaps both a sensual and cognitive key to what it felt like to live
in the past. Chapters engage with the philosophical and practical
questions revolving around the vexed relationship between historical
realism and affect."
- McCarthy, Joann E. ??? Early American Homes
magazine, April 1997, p. 45.
- Contains instructions for floorcloths.
- McClellan, Elisabeth. Historic Dress in America: 1607 to
- [This book] was published 1904-1910. My copy is a 1969 reprint.
It's an interesting book. Very well done for its time, in the
antiquarian style a la Alice Morse Earle. But many things have been
better researched since then. For example, McClellan depicts dated
18c wedding gowns which have irrefutably been remodeled, but she
missed the fact that they were remodeled, so the gown as she shows it
is not of the date she gives it. On the other hand, her primary
source citations are useful, and can be tracked down. If I were using
this book, (and I have), thats what I would do (and I did). McClellan
is not a work to be accepted at face value any more. --Sharon
- McCusker, John & Russell R. Menard. The Economy of
British America, 1607–1789. Univ. of North Carolina
- See, e.g., a list of selected English fabric exports sent to
British America in 1770, and their percents of total exports from
England, on p. 284.
- McMahon, Sarah F. A Comfortable Subsistence: The
Changing Composition of Diet in Rural New England, 1620-1840.
William and Mary Quarterly XLII, 1 (January 1985):26.
- Article on widow's portions with much good information on types
and quantities of food available, including change in diet over time.
- Michel, Marianne Roland.
Chardin. Thames & Hudson, 1996.
- This is one of those 5 lb. oversize coffee table art
books. --Dianne Tidy
- Contains reproduction of The
- Millward, Celia. Lost
Vocabulary of Colonial Rhode Island In American Speech:
1600 the Present, Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife
Annual Proceedings, 1983, pp. 44-54. Ed., Peter Benes. Boston
- Included is a list of "Technologically or Culturally Obsolete
Terms" with a footnote containing "terms thus far unidentified."
- Montgomery, Florence M. Textiles in America 1650–1870 :
A dictionary based on original documents, prints and paintings,
commercial records, American merchants' papers, shopkeepers'
advertisements, and pattern books with original swatches of
cloth. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1984.
- Out of print, and secondhand copies are expensive. Try
interlibrary loan. News flash, 15 July 2006: A
senior editor at Norton's architecture and design books says "You'll
be happy to hear that we have scheduled a reissue of the book, and it
will be available in April 2007." It has returned to print, but buy
your copy quick before it goes out of print again.
- Wonderful book with tons of pictures of swatches. Not
much primary documentation of how these fabrics were used, however.
- For textiles themselves, my favorite is still [this book]. --Kate
- I had to call Winterthur's catalog dept. today, and when the
customer service person asked if there was anything else she could
help me with, I asked if they every took suggestions. She said they
weekly have to turn in a report of customer requests. So ...
I asked if they would consider re-publishing both of the Florence
Montgomery books, and this time, include a softback edition. Perhaps
if they get enough requests ... <G> It can't hurt for us to
try. --Betsy Packard
- Montgomery, Florence M. Printed Textiles: English and
American Cottons and Linens 1700-1850. Viking Press, 1970,
- Moore, Christopher. The Loyalists: Revolution, Exile,
Settlement (2nd edition). McClelland & Stewart, Toronto, 1994.
- This doesn't focus primarly on women, but it discusses various and
sundry Loyalists, their trials and tribulations. --Kathleen Manneke
- Moore, Peter N. World of Toil and Strife: Community
Transformation in Backcountry South Carolina, 1750–1805.
University of South Carolina Press (March 30, 2007), ISBN-10:
1570036667, ISBN-13: 978-1570036668.
- Morrison, Venetia. The Art of George
Stubbs. Quantum Books : London, 1989, ISBN 1-84013-073-3.
- Contains "The Haymakers" (1794), "Haycarting" (1795), "Reapers"
- Munhall, Edgar. Greuze the draftsman. London :
Merrill ; New York : Frick Collection, 2002. 283 p. : ill. (some
col.?); 30 cm., ISBN 185894158X. ISBN for a paperback edition (may or
may not have same content): 1858941598.
- Murdoch, Tessa (editor), Candace Briggs and Laurie Lindey
(inventories transcribed by). Noble households :
eighteenth-century inventories of great English houses : a tribute to
John Cornforth. Cambridge, UK: John Adamson, 2006, ISBN
- Myers, Albert Cook, ed. Sally Wister's Journal.
Ferris & Leach, Philadelphia, 1902. Now available thru Applewood
Books, Bedford, Mass.
- Diary kept by a Philadelphia Quaker girl while sent to the
countryside to avoid the war. Short, but a valuable insight into the
attitudes and activities of a Quaker girl. Not an exact reproduction;
typeset, and with no indication of whether spelling was modernized.
- Nehring, Nancy. 50 Heirloom Buttons to Make. The
Taunton Press, 1996. Taunton Press, Box 5506, Newtown CT 06470-5506.
- I don't know if this book is still in print. FWIW, except for the
Dorset, Leek and death's head buttons (I looked again; they do call it
a death's head), the rest are all fancy Victorian-or-later. But the
book is still interesting. It has basic instructions, materials
sources, and intriguing button ideas for other periods, or even
contemporary clothing, like for "real life".
:-) --Sharon Burnston
- Larry Nelson, Larry L. (Larry Lee). A Man of Distinction
Among Them : Alexander McKee and the Ohio country frontier,
1754-1799. Kent, Ohio ; London, England : Kent State
University Press, 1999.
- Neumann, George C., & Kravic, Frank J. Collector's
Illustrated Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. Stackpole
Books, Harrisburg, 1975. Also assorted reprints.
- P. 189, item 1: mitten in light brown wool, found in a clay bog
next to buttons of the 23rd, 27th and 40th British regiments.
- Neumann, George C. Early American Antique Country
Furnishing. Legacy Press, 1988, ISBN-10: 0517661837, ISBN-13:
- Nieuwhoff, Constance, Willem Diepraam, and Cas Oorthuys.
The Costumes of Holland. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1985.
- This book is one of the few books available in the English
language that I've seen dealing with continental clothing worn by "the
people". It's not a book for scholars wanting high style costuming.
Most of it covers the 19th and 20th centuries but has some lovely and
intriguing glimpses into the 18th century rural clothing of the
Netherlands. The photographic demonstrations of women getting dressed
are wonderful. One shows the process of putting on a cap that has 17
different layers! --Kate Emerson
- Nissenbaum, Stephen. The Battle For Christmas.
New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996, 381 pp., hardcover, ISBN
- Discusses changes in the celebration of Christmas over time, in
particular how it turned from the original highly pagan, rowdy,
wassailing, reversal-of-class-roles public holiday into the modern
quintessential private family holiday. The book is not restricted to
the 18th century but does have a fair amount of information about it,
mostly about the lack of celebrating Christmas in New England. An
entire chapter deals with Christmas of the Antebellum South but I
haven't read it yet, so I don't know if it goes back to the 18th
century. --Sue Felshin
- Nivelon, F. The Rudiments of Genteel Behavior.
1737. New Jersey : The King's Arms
Press and Bindery (facsimile edition).
- The first page begins with a sort of subtitle: "An Introduction to
the Method of attaining a graceful Attitude, an agreeable Motion, an
easy Air, and a genteel Behaviour."
- Norton, Mary Beth. Liberty's Daughters, The
Revolutionary Experience of American Women, 1750-1800. New
York: Harper, 1980, ISBN 0-8014-8347-6.
- "It was republished a few years ago by Cornell University in
- Norton, Mary Beth. Getting to the Source -- Hetty
Shepard, Dorothy Dudley, and Other Fictional Colonial Women I Have
come to Know Altogether Too Well. Appeared in two
parts in the Journal of Women's History, 1998(?).
- This article unmasks the "primary source" status of these three
sources, which are frauds!
- Nylander, Jane C. Our Own Snug Fireside: Images of the
New England Home, 1760-1860. New York: Knopf and Toronto:
Random House, 1993, ISBN 0-394-54984-8. Yale University Press, 1994,
- Addresses many areas of life and history, including seasonal
living, laundry, textile production and use, child rearing, community
connections, the myth of self-sufficiency, development of 19c romantic
notions of the 18c, etc., etc. An easy read, but many conclusions are
only documented with one or two examples, and some statements are left
entirely undocumented. Mostly 19c information, but still of interest
from an 18c viewpoint, if primarily for documented examples rather
than conclusions. Two terms used in the book (probably both 19c) that
have been mentioned on 18cWoman are "tyers", which appear to be bibbed
aprons or possibly pinafores, and "coolers", which are described as a
child's loose garment with sleeves, a drawstring neckline, and no
other fitting. --Sue Felshin
- O'Neil II, James F. (compiler and editor). Their Bearing
Is Noble and Proud: A Collection of narratives regarding the
appearance of Native Americans from 1740-1785 Dayton: JTGS
- Palliser, Bury, Mrs. History of
Lace, Dover Publications Inc., New York, 1984, ISBN
0-486-24742-2. This is a reprint of the 4th edition, Scribner, New
- As is fairly typical for 19th century works, this book is poorly
documented and full of romantic stories of questionable accuracy. The
author also displays preferences toward and against various cultural
groups that bias her text and compromise her work. The book contains
a glossary of types of lace, with many (poorly labeled) illustrations.
It is useful as a jumping off point for tracking down further
information, but I can't recommend it on its own. --Sue Felshin
- Peakman, Julie. Lacivious Bodies: A sexual history of
the eighteenth century. London: Atlantic Books, ISBN
- Park, Edwards. To Bathe or Not to Bathe: Coming Clean in
Colonial America. In Colonial
Williamsburg, Fall (?) 2000.
- Partridge, Virginia P. (Farmer's Museum, Cooperstown, NY).
Techniques Found in 18th Century Floor Coverings in
America. In Imported and Domestic Textiles in 18th
Century America, proceedings of the Roundtable on Museum
Textiles, The Textile Museum, Washington, D.C., 1975, pp. 96 & ff.
- Perkins, Elizabeth E. The Consumer Frontier: Household
Consumption in Early Kentucky, The Journal of American
History, Sept. 1991, pp. 486 - 510.
- Peterson, Deborah J. The Common Pin. In
ALHFAM Proceedings of the 2001 Conference & Annual Meeting,
Williamsburg, VA, June 10-15, 2001 Volume XXIV. (Presented at
William and Mary College, ALHFAM Annual Conference, June 10-15, 2001,
Williamsburg, VA, as published in the above proceedings.)
- Proceedings available from ALHFAM (The Association for Living
History, Farm and Agricultural Museums). Also available from Past Masters in Early
American Domestic Arts.
- Phillips, Kevin. The Cousins' Wars. Basic Books,
January 2000. ISBN: 0465013708.
- Looks at the political themes that run through the English Civil
War, the American Revolution, and the American Civil War.
- Phillips, Ruth B. Trading Identities: The Souvenir in
Native North American Art from the Northeast,
1700-1900. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press,
- Pickover, Clifford A., Ph.D. The Girl Who Gave Birth to
Rabbits: A True Medical Mystery. Prometheus Books, 2002, ISBN
- About a woman who was claimed to have given birth to rabbits in
the year 1726. Two Hogarth prints refer to this story,
Cunicularii, or The Wise Men of Godalming in
Consultation, 1726 (on the Web at
William Hogarth's Realm) and Credulity, Superstition, and
Fanaticism, 1762 (print 95 in the Dover Engravings by
Hogarth and on the Web at
Haley & Steele).
- [no author]. Portraits
of Martha. In The Early America Review,
No. 1, Winter 2000.
- Four purported portraits of Martha Washington. The portraits
shown are unlabeled as to artist, date, or origin, and are inaccurate,
variously 19th century inventions and copies of earlier portraits; for
a detailed discussion, see the 18cWoman archives circa February 24,
2000. These portraits are also in the related Early American Digital Library, where they
are equally unattributed.
- Potter-MacKinnon, Janice. While the Women Only Wept:
Loyalist Refugee Women In Eastern Ontario. McGill-Queen's
University Press, Montreal & Kingston, 1993.
- Prindle, Tara. Early Historic Accounts of Basket and Bag
Weaving in the Northeast. 2004. <http://www.nativetech.org/weave/basketandbag/index.html>
(accessed May 26, 2005). In NativeTech: Native American
Technology & Art, <http://www.nativetech.org/>.
- Pulliam, Deborah. The Mysterious Brewster Stocking.
Ars Textrina #30, December 1998.
- Pulliam, Deborah. Early Baby Stockings: The eighteenth century.
Spin*Off Magazine Vol. XXI Number 4, Winter 1997.
- Pulliam, Deborah. Knitted Stockings in Old England.
Spin*Off Magazine Vol. XVI Number 4, Winter 1992.
- In the photo
on page 73, the second sock from the left very nicely illustrates
decreases in a striped stocking. Beware, though -- one article is on
"Socks for eighteenth-century re-enactment". Though the handspun,
handknit stockings are the right length, they have several construction
features that were developed later. --Carol Kocian
- Purvis, Thomas L. Colonial America to 1763 The
Almanacs of American Life, Facts
on File project, 1999.
- Purvis, Thomas L. Revolutionary America
1763–1800. The Almanacs of American Life, Facts
on File project, 1999.
- Queen, Sally. Textiles for Colonial Clothing.
Q Graphics Production Company, 2000, ISBN #09658197-4-4.
- Order online at www.sallyqueenassociates.com, Amazon.com, or call
toll free order number 888-266-7298 (US only) or 703-836-2407 (also,
an order form is posted in the 18cWoman Files area). From the order
Did colonial Americans only wear homespun cloth? Was osnaburg that we
used in our 1950s curtains the same as 18th century oznabrig? If you
think our ancestors wore drab colors and boring clothes, check out the
Here is a hands-on approach to textiles used in colonial clothing.
The modern textile samples give a feel to textiles in colonial
America! For educators at all levels, this book de-mystifies the
basics of textiles and clothing of early Americans in a practical way.
- Has photos of jewelry-type stomachers, including a blue paste and
silver stomacher in the shape of a bow, and an 18th-century engraving
of a stomacher belonging to Mme du Barry that looks like it would have
been nearly as big as the fabric stomacher it covered.
- Rees, John U."The multitude of women ...": An Examination
of the Numbers of Female Camp Followers With the Continental
Army. In The Brigade Dispatch (Journal of the Brigade of the American Revolution)
in three parts: Volume XXIII, no. 4 (Autumn 1992), 5–17; Volume
XXIV, no. 1 (Winter 1993), 6-16; Volume XXIV, no. 2 (Spring 1993),
2-6. Reprinted in Minerva: Quarterly Report on Women and the
Military, Volume XIV, no. 2 (Summer 1996). On the Web at
- Rees, John U."The proportion of Women which ought to be
allowed...": An Overview of Continental Army Female Camp
Followers. In The Continental Soldier (Journal of
the Continental Line),
vol. VIII, no. 3 (Spring 1995), 51-58. On the Web at
- Rezneck, Samuel. Unrecognized Patriots: The Jews in the American
Revolution. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1975.
- Reynolds, Graham (with the assistance of Katharine Baetjer).
European Miiniatures in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Metropolitan Museum of art, publisher. Harry N. Abrams, Inc.,
- Ribeiro, Aileen. Dress in Eighteenth-Century Europe,
1715–1789. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002.
- Riddle, John M. Eve's Herbs; A History of Contraception
and Abortion in the West. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1997.
- Riffel, Melanie and Sophie Rouart. Toile de Jouy:
printed textiles in the classic French style. London ; New
York: Thames & Hudson, 2003, ISBN 0500511497.
- Riley, Mara. Johnson, Cathy
(illustrator). Whatever Shall I Wear?: A Guide to Assembling a
Woman's Basic 18th Century Wardrobe. Excelsior Springs, MO: Graphics/Fine Arts Press, 2002,
Part of the core costume library for people who are interested in
the dress of common people.
- Your best basic introduction to 18th century women's clothing.
Finally the Distaff
Sketchbook can be laid to its long-overdue rest!
- Rogers, Gay Ann. An Illustrated History of Needlework
Tools. Claremont, CA: Needlework Unlimited, 1983, ISBN
0-962223100-0-2; June, 1994, ISBN-10: 0962231002.
- Describes knitting sheaths.
- Pp. 53–57 describe chatelaines [18c term: equipages --SLF].
In the 1700's they were worn by women and men "as an all-purpose
hanger or as a specialized holder for watches, seals, and expensive
trifles." The specialized sewing chatelaine is "primarily a Victorian
invention." By the late 19th century, they are usually for females,
mostly sewing tools, and decorative. --Sherri Saines
- Rose, Clare.
Children's Clothes Since 1750. Printed in Great Britain by Courier
International, Tiptree, Essex, for the publishers B. T. Batsford Limited, 4
Fitshardinge St., London W1H0AH, 1989, ISBN 0713457414.
of the core costume library for people who are interested in
- Roth, Rodris. Tea Drinking in Eighteenth-Century
America: Its Etiquette and Equipage. In Washington, DC:
Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology,
number 14, U.S. National Museum, Bulletin 225, Smithsonian
Institution, 1961, pp. 61-91.
- Roth, Rodris. Tea Drinking in Eighteenth-Century
America: Its Etiquette and Equipage. In Material Life In
America, 1600-1860, Robert Blair St. George, editor, Boston:
Northeastern University Press, 1988, ISBN 1-55553-019-2 (hardcover),
- Updated version of earlier article of the same name in
Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology.
- Roth, Stacy F. Past Into Present. UNC Press, 1997.
- A guidebook for people doing first-person at historic sites.
- Rothstein, Natalie, editor. A Lady of Fashion: Barbara
Johnson's Album of Styles and Fabrics. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd,
- Out of print.
- I love [this book] (did that ever cost and arm and a
leg!!) for looking at actual samples of available fabric. --Kate
- Rothstein, Natalie. Silk Designs of the Eighteenth
Century in the Collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London:
With a Complete Catalogue, Victoria And Albert Museum, Bulfinch
Press, 1990, ISBN 0821218123.
- Rowe, Ann Pollard. Crewel Embroidered Bed Hangings in
Old and New England. In the Boston Museum
- Rutt, Richard. History of Hand Knitting.
Interweave Pr, June 1989, hardcover, 248 pp., ISBN 0934026351.
Interweave Press, May 1, 2003, hardcover, 256 pp., ISBN: 1931499373.
- The old (out of print) copies have color pictures. The newer
reprint has only black and white, I'm told. There are other books
that talk about knitting history ... mostly they just quote Rutt, and
mostly they take extant artifacts and make a modern pattern from them
with only the 'flavor' of the original. --Colleen Humphreys
- Saint-Aubin, Charles Germain
de. L'art du brodeur.
1770. The title page reads "L'art du brodeur / Par M. de
Saint-Aubin/Dessinateur du Roi / M DCC LXX".
- Reproduction edition available. See [Scheuer & Maeder 1983].
- Salmon, Marylynn. Women and the Law or Property in Early
America. Univ. of NC Press, 1986.
- Schaaphok, Ingrid. The Mythical "Bodice". In
The Brigade Courier, the Brigade of
the American Revolution, Nov-Dec 1999.
- Scheuer, Nikki, translator
and annotator. Maeder, Edward, editor. Art of the Embroiderer. Los
Angeles County Museum of Art, 1983, ISBN 0-87587-110-0. Reproduction
of L'art du brodeur [Saint-Aubin 1770]. The title page
reads "Art of the Embroiderer / by Charles Germain de Saint-Aubin /
Designer to the King / 1770 / Translated and Annotated by Nikki
Scheuer / Los Angeles County Museum of Art".
- This reproduction contains both the original French text and an
English translation. Illustrated with examples from the collection at
the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Has engraved diagrams of
embroidery patterns and equipment showing how work is done. Briefly
mentions knotting, with a drawing of a thread with some knots in it;
color plates from the LACMA show a couple of artifacts with knotting.
Contains engraving of a tambour hook and frame. Limited in scope --
fancy court embroidery only -- but excellent on that topic, and the
color plates, while few, are luscious. --Sue Felshin
- Schoeser, Mary, Printed
Handkerchiefs. Jolly & Barger, Rugby, England, 1988,
Museum of London.
- Schwartz, Laurens R. Jews and the American Revolution:
Haym Salomon and Others. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1987.
Seale, William. Recreating the Historic House
Interior. The American Association for State and Local
History, 1979, ISBN 0-910050-32-5.
- Seaver, James E. (James Everett), 1787-1827. A Narrative
of the Life of Mrs. Mary Jemison, Who Was Taken by the Indians, In the
Year 1755, When Only About Twelve Years of Age, and Has Continued to
Reside Amongst Them to the Present Time. Text on line at at
- Sebba, Anne. Samplers: Five Centuries of a Gentle
Craft. NY: Thames and Hudson, 1979, ISBN 0-500-23300-4.
- Shammas, Carole. How Self-Sufficient was Early
America?. Journal of Interdisciplinary History,
V. 13, 2 (Autumn 1982), pp. 247 - 272.
- Shesgreen, Sean (editor).
The Criers and Hawkers of London: Engravings and Drawings by
Marcellus Larroon Stanford University Press, Stanford,
California, 1990, ISBN 0804715068.
- Edited by Sean Shesgreen, with
- Reproduces portions of Larroon's series of "Cries" in several
versions, with commentary. Contains an introduction discussing the
history of "cries", with some reproductions of earlier cries. The
prints are generally 17th century or earlier, with 18th century prints
being updated versions of earlier prints. Excellent source for the
17th century; less so for the 18th. Read the commentary for hints on
how appropriate any given 18th c version is as documentation of
fashions and habits of its own time, rather than earlier times. Cited
as the source for The Fine Art of Lacing a
Bodice. --Sue Felshin
- Shields, David S. Civil Toungues & Polite Letters in
British America. Instit. of Early Am. History & Culture,
Williamsburg, U of NC Press, Chapel Hill, 1997.
- Smellie, Dr. A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of
Midwifery. 1752. Facsimile print in 1974 by Scolar Press, 30
Great Russell St, London; and Robert E. Krieger Publishing Co., Inc,
New York; on the occasion of the Twentieth British Congress of
Obstetrics and Gynaecology, London 1974.
- Smith, Andrew F. The Tomato in America: Early History,
Culture, and Cookery. University of South Carolina Press,
1994, ISBN: 1570030006.
- The short version is, no, 18th century people didn't think
tomatoes were poisonous; they just didn't much like eating them. If
you want the long version, read this book. --Sue Felshin
- Smith, Billy G. Death and Life in a Colonial immigrant
City: A Demographic Analysis of Philadelphia. In Journal
of Economic History, 37(4):863-89, 1977.
- Smith, Charles Saumarez. 18th Century Decoration, Design
and the Domestic Interior in England. Harry N Abrams, 1993,
- As the title suggests, its focus is 18th Century interiors, but as
it is a "picture book" with text (388 ilustrations, 189 plates in full
color), it relies on portraits and sketches to illustrate interior
rooms of all types and of all classes of society. The dust jacket
claims that some of the images have never before been reproduced.
There is comment on the artists' "intent" in depicting the subjects,
but since the author is concerned with the decor, unlike Anne Buck, he
doesn't discuss the clothing. The reader can derive all sorts of
information, however, from studying the many large and clear
illustrations. The book includes some great portraits with caps
displayed both front and back. --Joyce McDonald
- Smith, Daniel Scott. Continuity and Discontinuity in
Puritan Naming: Massachusetts, 1771. William & Mary
Quarterly, 3rd series, 51 (1994), 67-91.
- Good source for popular given names in the region.
- Smith, Kathleen B. ??? Early American Homes
magazine, June, 1996, page 36.
- Contains instructions for making bedhangings.
- Quite good. --Sharon Burnston
- Snap, J. Russell. John Stuart and the Struggle for Empire
on the Southern Frontier. Louisiana State University Press,
- Contains information on Indians (Native Americans) in the Southern
campaign of the American Revolution.
- Soltow, James H. The role of Williamsburg in the
Virginia Economy, 1750 - 1775. William & Mary
Qtrly, 3rd. Ser, Vol 15, No 4, pp. 467-482.
- Sorge, Lynn (Dept. of Theatre/Costume Studies, Dalhousie Univ.,
Halifax, Nova Scotia). The Engineering of Stays and Hoops:
Laying the Foundation for the Eighteenth Century Aesthetic, in
Exquisite Dress: Women's Dress of the 18th Century,
Tidy's Symposium papers, Winterthur Museum, Wilmington DE, April 1,
- Contains information on transitional stays (rococo to Regency
- Spruill, Julia Cherry. Women's Life and Work in the
Southern Colonies. W.W. Norton, 1972 (orig. publ. UNC Press,
1938). ISBN 0*393-31758-7.
- I am partway through this book and so far it is one of the best
books I have found on life in the south during the Colonial period.
- Starobinski, Jean, and Philippe Duboy (Contributor).
Revolution in Fashion : European Clothing, 1715-1815.
Kyoto Costume Institute. Abbeville Press, Inc., 1990, ISBN
- Often referred to as "the Kyoto book". This book is out
of print/out of stock.
- There are 2 examples of jumps.
Page 36 shows jumps 7 petticoat, English, early 18th
century. Jumps: linen w/ polychrome silk embroidery. The pictured
jumps are tan & appear to be quilted. They are tied at the
shoulders like stays, appear to be V-or U-necked, and are tied across
the front with ribbons. They also appear to provide little or no
Page 75 shows a light blue quilted set(?) of jumps. English, mid
18th century. Jumps: silk with diamond-shaped quilting, fastened in
front w/ buttons, back lacing, 8 peplum tabs. This one has shoulder
seams sewn together. The front has horizontal tabs or tongues w/ the
buttonholes in them. The garment is very fancy and quite beautiful.
- Straeten, Judith (archivist, Brunschweig & Fils).
Toiles de Jouy. Gibbs Smith, 2002, ISBN-10: 158685156X,
- Steckel, Richard H. Nutritional Status in the Colonial
American Economy. William & Mary Qtrly, 3d
Series, Vol., 56, No. 1, pp. 31-52.
- Styles, John. Involuntary Consumers? Servants and Their
Clothes in Eighteenth Century England. In Pasold Textile
History, Volume 33, Number 1, May 2002.
- This article provides a systematic examantion of servants clothing
focusing on the account books of a Yorkshire manufacturer and his
servants from the 1760s through 1790s. This is an extremely
interesting article with a very systematic analyis of clothing
purchased/yard goods/accessories/shoes/cloaks/stays, etc. I cannot
say enough about the value of this article from many points of view,
but especially if you are trying to portray a servant. --Hallie
- Styles, John. The Dress of the People, 2007.
Yale University Press, 2008, 448 pp., ISBN-10: 0300121199, ISBN-13:
- Swan, Susan Burrows. Plain and Fancy:
American Women and Their Needlework, 1650-1850. Austin, Texas :
Curious Works Press, 1995, ISBN 0-9633331-3-5. First edition by Rutledge
- Illustrated with examples from the needlework collection at Winterthur
Museum and elsewhere.
- A readable text, a glossary and stitch diagrams in the back, plus
photos by George Fistrovich which will make you itch to pick up a needle,
and are sharp enough that you can count stitches! --Sharon Burnston
- Contains picture of tambour hoop (p. 84) and embroidery frame
- Swan, Susan Burrows. A Winterthur guide to American
needlework. Crown Publishers, paperback, 1976.
- Szasz, Margaret Connell. Indian Education in the American
Colonies, 1607-1783. Originally published 1988. Reissued by
Bison Books/University of Nebraska Press, 2007.
- The reissue is is a republication, not a revision; after a brief
chapter on colonial education, she surveys various colonial efforts to
educate Native people in both the northeast and southeast. It is one
of the foundational books, maybe the foundational book, on
the topic. --Mary Svrjcek
- Taunton, Nerylla. Antique Needlework Tools and
Embroideries. Antique Collectors' Club (June 1, 1997), ISBN:
- Theobald, (Mary) Miley; photos by Dave Doody. Stuff and
Nonsense: Myths That Should by Now Be History. On the Web at
- Toomer, Heather. Lace: A guide to identification of old
lace types and techniques. London: B. T. Batsford Ltd, 1989.
- Although it's organized by type of lace, not chronologically, if
you leaf through it a few times you can get a very good idea of what
types and styles were available and popular over time. Best for
needle lace and bobbin lace, but there is a little bit of information
on other forms. --Sue Felshin
- Tozer, Jane, and Sarah Levitt. Fabric of Society : A
Century of People and their Clothes 1770–1870. Laura
Ashley, Powys, Wales 1983.
- P. 51: "Printed linen bedgown, c. 1760–70" with photo of
- Trestain, Eileen Jahnke. Dating Fabrics A Color guide
1800 - 1960. Paducah, Kentucky : American Quilter's Society,
1998, ISBN 0-89145-884-0.
- [This book] is an excellent secondary source within the dates she
covers. I would not use the information for 18th century clothing
except general knowledge of printed cottons in the 19th and 20th
century. (As it is produced by American Quilt Society it is slanted
toward textiles in quilts, separating the scraps from their garments.)
- Tully, Mark. The Fine Art of
Lacing a Bodice. In the NTWA Courier,
- Illustrates several ways to lace stays, taken from The Criers and Hawkers of London:
Engravings and Drawings by Marcellus Larroon.
- Turner, Katy. The Legacy of the Great Wheel.
Mountain View, MO: Select Books, 1980.
- Page 53 describes "spinning sticks".
- Uglow, Jenny. The Lunar Men: Five Friends Whose
Curiosity Changed the World. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002.
- Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. Good Wives: Image and Reality
in the Lives of Women in Northern New England 1650-1750.
Vintage Books, reissue edition, 1991, ISBN 0-679-73257-8. Univ. of
North Carolina Press, November 1996, ISBN: 0807846236
- A whole chapter on 'Travail' which deals with specifics such as
incidence of travel during pregnancy and lactation.
- Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. A Midwife's Tale: The Life of
Martha Ballard, Based on Her Diary, 1785-1812. Vintage Books,
reprint edition, 1991, ISBN 0679733760.
- The diary is available on the Web.
- Made into quite a good movie. --Sue Felshin
- Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. Wheels, Looms, and the Gender
Division of Labor in Eighteenth-Century New England. William &
Mary Quarterly, 3rd series, V. 55, No. 1 (1998), pp. 3-38.
- Discusses gender divisions in home textile manufacture.
- Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. The Age of Homespun: Objects
and Stories in the Creation of an American Myth. Alfred
A. Knopf, 2001. ISBN 0-679-44594-3.
- Ulrich, Laurel Thatcher. Of Pens and Needles: Sources in
Early American Women's History. The Journal of American
History, June 1990, pp. 200-207.
- Van Kirk, Sylvia. Many
Tender Ties : Women in Fur-Trade Society, 1670-1870. Winnipeg:
Watson & Dwyer, 1980. ISBN 0-920486-06-1. Norman, OK: University of
Oklahoma Press, 1983, ISBN-10 0806118474, ISBN 13 978-0806118475.
Winnipeg: Watson & Dwyer, 1996, ISBN-10: 189623951X, ISBN-13:
- Describes the changing role of women (Native, Metis, & European)
in the Canadian fur trade. Available from Amazon.com as of March 2001
(University of Oklahoma Press).
- A 'must' for anyone interested in portraying women associated with
the Canadian fur trade. Has some basic description of costume, but is
most valuable for explaining the social and economic roles of these
women, often called 'country wives' (femmes du pays). --Angela
- Vining, Elizabeth Gray. The
Virginia Exiles. Philadephia and New York: J.B. Lippincott
- Novel about Quakers exiled from Philadelphia to Virginia for the
stated reason of refusing to swear an oath of loyalty. See also Thomas Gilpin's Exiles in Virginia.
- Waller, Maureen. 1700: Scenes from London
Life. British edition: Hodder & Stoughton, London, 2000.
American edition: Four Walls Eight Windows, New York, 2000.
- It's a good read and there is even a really facinating print that
shows how the mantua style was adapted into peasant clothing. --Mary
- Walter, J. (sold by). Instructions for Cutting out
Apparel for the Poor. London, 1789.
- Instructions for making workbags on p. 37.
- Ward, Barbara McLean.
Women's Property and Family Continuity in Eighteenth Century
Connecticut. In Early
American Probate Inventories.
- Ward, Matthew C. Breaking the Backcountry; The Seven
Years War in Virginia, 1754-1765. University of Pittsburgh
Press, ISBN 0-8229-4214-3.
- Warwick, Edward; Pitz, Henry; Wychoff, Alexander. Early
American Dress: The Colonial and Revolutionary Period. Reprint:
Bonanza, New York, 1965.
- Waugh, Norah. The Cut of Women's
Clothes, 1600-1930. Faber and Faber, London, 1968.
- Discussion of women's clothes era by era. Period illustrations.
Quotes from period writings. Draughts of garment artifacts (to scale,
but not on a graphed grid).
- See comment at Waugh's Corsets and
- Waugh, Norah. Corsets and
Crinolines. London : B.T. Batsford, 1954.
- Nora Waugh's research is sometimes flawed such as the half-boned
red silk damask stays with the straps on backwards in Corsets and
Crinolines. She should be used; but, verified. --Dianne Tidy
- Weber, Caroline. Queen of Fashion: What Marie Antoinette
Wore to the Revolution. Hardcover edition: Henry Holt and Co.,
2006, ISBN-13: 978-0-8050-7949-4, ISBN-10: 0-8050-7949-1. Paperback
edition: Picador, 2007, ISBN-13: 978-0-312-42734-4, ISBN-10:
- Weidert, Bonnie R. Tape Looms Past and Present.
Printed by Image Printer, 543 S. Clinton Ave., Rochester, NY 14620.
- It contains some wonderful Information and Instructions, and
patterns to make tape. Documentation on the looms, plus patterns for
making the some of the looms. --Cindy Gorin
- Wells, Robert V. Facing the King of Terrors; Death and
Society in an American Community 1750–1990.
Cambridge University Press, 1999.
- The community that the subtitle refers to is Schenectady, NY.
- Werner, Alex. London
Bodies. Museum of London, London, 1998.
- Contains reproduction of City
- Wertz, Richard W. and Dorothy C. Wertz. Lying-In: A
History of Childbirth in America. New York: Free Press, 1977.
- Review at
- Whiting, Gertrude. Old Time Tools & Toys of
Needlework. Dover Publications, 1973, ISBN 0486225178.
- Examples [of knotting shuttles] may be found in [this book].
- Misattributes a lucet as a thread winder and a tape loom as a
- Willan, Anne. Great Cooks and Their Recipes from
Taillevent to Escoffier. Boston: Little, Brown & Co, 1992,
- On p. 98, contains reproduction of Balthasar Nebot's Covent
Garden with St Paul's Church, 1737, in the Guildhall Art
Gallery in London.
- Wilson, Erica. Crewel Embroidery. New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1962, SBN 684-10673-6.
- The title page spread and introduction contain photographs of
several 18th century crewel embroidered bed hangings, petticoats, and
- Wolf, Simon (1836-1923). The American Jew as Patriot,
Soldier, and Citizen [edited by Louis Edward Levy], with a new
introduction by George Athan Billias. Boston: Gregg Press, 1972;
first edition 1895.
- Wolf, Stephanie Grauman. As Various as Their Lands: The
Everyday Lives of Eighteenth-Century Americans. Harper Collins
Publishers, 1993, ISBN 0-06-092537-x.
- A carefully researched and useful book. In her chapter on
Community Networks, on page 258, she states that in Philadelphia alone
there were 18 organized denominations. --Deb Peterson
- I too found "As Various as their Lands" to be a very well written
book, and a useful addition to one's library.
However, be warned that it is not footnoted. This makes it an
"easier read", but, for us documentation junkies, having no footnotes
is a bit frustrating. --Ingrid Schaaphok
- Dr. Wolfe is not happy that Various isn't footnoted. She
wrote it with footnotes but the publisher chose not to add them. Sigh. If
anyone wishes to query her source on an item she is more than willing to
give the source. Believe me if she doesn't have a source she doesn't use
I have her email address, but will have to ask her permission to put it
out here. I wouldn't want her to be swamped! Stevie is a very nice woman
who is a professor at the Univ. of Delaware. Her work is wonderful and
hearing her speak is fun too! --Deb Peterson
- Woodmason, Charles. The Carolina Backcountry on the Eve
of the Revolution: The Journal and Other Writings of Charles
Woodmason, Anglican Itinerant. Richard J. Hooker, editor.
University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC, 1953.
- Contains the paragraph on certain women in the South going without
stays: "The Young Women have a most uncommon Practise, which I
cannot break them off...".
- LOTS of wonderful stuff in there, though his attitude as a rather
uptight Anglican minister fresh from England is rather different from
the Rev. Joseph Doddridge's, who grew up among his parishioners.
Woodmason looks down on the people he serves, and has some very unkind
things to say about them--still he observed well, and noted a great
deal of interesting stuff... --Kate Johnson
- To the best of my memory, he was in "upcountry" or western South
Carolina, around Camden, when he was writing the bit of his diary that
Kate quoted. I believe this area was still considered "frontier" at
this time [...]. --Katie Caddell
- Woodruff, Elvira. George Washington's Socks.
Original edition out of print. Hardcover reprint: Econo-Clad Books,
1999, ISBN 0785701923. Softcover reprint: Apple, 1993, ISBN
- This book takes a different approach to the 18th century from most
historical novels, using time travel by contemporary kids as a way to
bridge the gap to the 1770s. (I think it relies heavily on Fast's
Crossing for its details of the Trenton battle.)
--J. L. Bell
Wright, Merideth and Nancy Rexford (illustrator).
- Everyday Dress of Rural America, 1783-1800 : with
Instructions and Patterns. Dover, 1992.
- Yentsch, Ann. A Chesapeake Family and Their Slaves: A
Study in Historical Archaeology. Cambridge University Press,
1994, ISBN: 0521467306.
- Young, Philip. Revolutionary Ladies: Being the surprising
true histories of some forgotten American women--all beautiful, rich, and
Loyalist--whose lives were shaped by scandal and turned upside down by the
War for Independence. NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977.
- This offers detailed studies of Lady Frances Wentworth, Elizabeth
Loring, Margaret Moncrieffe, Peggy Shippen Arnold, Hannah Van Horne,
Betsy Rogers, and others. All well-born Loyalists, some of them not
only close to but totally involved in the conduct of the war. Several
of their stories are foggy because of scandal, espionage, deliberate
misremembering, romanticization, etc., which Young tries to cut
through. --J. L. Bell
- Chardin, Jean Siméon.
The Attentive Nurse, probably 1738, according to the
National Gallery of Art. According to Chardin by Michel, c. 1747,
and called The Convalescent's Meal and also known as
The Attentive Nurse.
- Available on the Web at the
National Gallery of Art. Reproduced in Chardin by Michel.
- Woman wears a pinkish apron with pinner,
rather short; pin (probably, though theoretically could be thorn)
visible in detail image.
What is that tie at the back of her neck? Could she be wearing a
kerchief over a cap? She appears to be wearing a bedgown. The top
part just looks printed but the bottom part looks striped and printed;
hard to tell if this is an artifact of the painting, the reproduction,
or what. Her petticoat is striped rather interestingly. --Sue
- The white piece showing in the back is the tail end of the long
kerchief wrapped around her cap and then around her neck and tied in
back. A side view of this method of wrapping appears in The
Diligent Mother, c. 1740. In the sketch which pre-dates the
painting, the kerchief is black, not white. The upper garment does
appear to be a printed fabric; while the petticoat appears to be an
irregular woven stripe. The stripes are orange, white, gray and
golden yellow and are very similar to a stripe petticoat that Beth
Gilgun wears. The nurse is also wearing heeled mules. --Dianne Tidy
- Chardin, Jean Siméon. The Kitchen Maid. 1738.
- Available on the Web at the
National Gallery of Art. Note interesting pattern on kerchief;
image. --Sue Felshin
- Chardin, Jean Siméon. The
House of Cards. c. 1735.
- Available on the Web at the
National Gallery of Art. Note side curls similar to boy in Soap Bubbles. --Sue Felshin
- Chardin, Jean Siméon. Soap
Bubbles. Probably 1733/1734.
- Available on the Web at the
National Gallery of Art.
- One boy blows bubbles while another watches. Note side locks (see
also The House of Cards) and open
underarm seam on one boy, strange cap (see detail) on other.
- The "smiling seam" on the sleeved waistcoat is very common on the
middle century garment. Serves several purposes: allows for more ease
in the closely fitting sleeve and also allows the garment to air the
armpit...I have seen this on several silk sleeved waistcoats from this
period. The underarm seam is finished separately on the waistcoat and
on the lower sleeve between the two sleeve seams. The upper sleeve is
sewn into the garment as usual. --Dianne Tidy
- A "smiling seam" is used on the French soldier's small
clothes, according to the regulation of, hm, '79, I think. --Sue Felshin
- Chardin, Jean Siméon.
The Young Governess. c. 1739.
- Available on the Web at the
National Gallery of Art.
- How do you like that ribbon on her cap,
gold edged with red! (See detail.)
Interesting cap on the child, too. (I'm guessing it's a boy.) --Sue
- The two color ribbon, edged red on white also shows up on Saying
Grace c. 1740. The little girl in the foreground wears the same
style cap. I have seen silk embroidered versions of this child's cap
in several collections; but surviving without the band. One that was
heavily quilted (white linen or cotton) was recently sold at a local
antique store (no, not in my price range!); but, I did get a good look
at it before it was gone. --Dianne Tidy
- Collier, Edward. A Trompe l'Oeil of Newspapers, Letters
and Writing Implements on a Wooden Board, circa 1699.
Available on the Web at the Tate
- Painting contains not only letters and writing implements but also
a horn comb.
- Copley, John Singleton. The Death of Major Pierson. 17??.
- Original on display at the Tate Gallery in London, England. Reproduced
in John Singleton Copley in America.
Cropped image on Web at http://sunsite.auc.dk/cgfa/copley/p-copley11.htm.
- Fragonard, Jean-Honori. La toilette (II). 1742.
- On Web at http://www.marquise.de/material/1700/1742_2.jpg,
available via La Couturière
Rococo Menu: 18th Century
Late Baroque and Rococo Fashion, 1740-1760.
- This painting shows a woman gartering her stockings above the knee
with pink ribbon. She has wrapped the ribbon around her knee at least
twice. This would help to distribute the tension and allow her to tie
the garters a little tighter than if she only wrapped them once
around. She is wearing an open-fronted shift-like garment that
appears to be a dressing jacket of some sort. A wide lacing appears
across her bosom; this is presumably lacing across a stomacher -- this
is 1742, after all. --Sue Felshin
Jean-Baptiste. The Village Betrothal.
- On the Web at
the WebMuseum, Paris.
- The bride, who wears an exceptionally wide and form fitting bib
apron, does not appear to be wearing stays. Several women wear
interesting caps. Good reproduction in 18th Century French Painting.
Jean-Baptiste. The Spoiled Child.
- On the Web at
- Lancret, Nicolas. The Picnic after the Hunt.
Probably c. 1740.
- Available on the Web at the National
Gallery of Art. Two women wear riding habits. If this one isn't
a riding habit with underpinnings, I don't know what is! --Sue
- And again, notice that the jackets are worn open, disclosing the
waistcoat. I rarely have found a painting in which the jacket is
closed. --Barbara Delorey
- Penny, Edward. City
Shower At the London Museum. Reproduced in Johnson's Eighteenth Century
London. Reproduced in Werner's
- A servant twirling a mob is wearing a bib apron. This is the most
solid example I know of of an adult, non-whore Englishwoman in a bib
apron. That's one example out of hundreds of examples of non-bib
aprons, so this one picture should not be used as license for
reenactors of Englishwomen to wear bib aprons. This painting has been
discussed on 18cWoman; check the archives on 31 Jan 2000, 6 Feb 2000,
and 11-14 Mar 2000.
- Piazzetta, Giovanni Battista. A Shepherd Family
- Available on the Web at the
National Gallery of Art. This romanticized Italian idyll has
little if anything to do with the American colonies, and probably just
as little to do with the real Italy of that era, but it does remind me
considerably of some reenactors' fanciful outfits: woman in
off-shoulder, sleeveless bodice (?) and no cap, man in casual,
open-fronted something-or-other. Perhaps this explains where they get
those ideas. --Sue Felshin
- Vanloo, Charles Amédée Philippe. The Magic
- Available on the Web at the
National Gallery of Art. Interesting kerchief on woman. Is she
wearing a jacket with long sleeves that button or lace? (See detail.) I
wish I knew how to dress my hair like hers! Child's frock appears to
have stiffened bodice. --Sue Felshin
- Vanloo, Charles Amédée Philippe. Soap
- Available on the Web at the
National Gallery of Art. Woman appears to have pinned cloth to
bodice to catch bubbles; pins are fairly clearly visible in detail image.
Henry. Plucking the Turkey. Exhibited 1776.
- Available on the Web at the Tate
Gallery. Reproduced in Dress in
Eighteenth Century England, p. 104. Reproduced in Paintings of the British Social
Scene (full-page, color).
- The woman appears to be wearing an English-style bedgown, but one
can see by the lay of the grid of spots that it flares at the hips,
rather than being square cut. Her apron is interesting for being a
relatively large windowpane check. --Sue Felshin
- I think she is wearing an English style bedgown (very similar to
the pink one in the Stubbs Haymaker painting -- a painting which some
people scoff at, but I am not one of them). It is a logwood lavender
with white spots. Her blue and white check apron is indeed tied at
the front. Her petticoat is a bluey-green linen. What I love is that
you can see that she is wearing strapless stays because of the
tell-tale line on her back. Janice Ryan cites this cap as one of the
pictures on which she based her dormeuse cap pattern. --Nancy Watt
Henry. The Silver Age
- In the collection of Yale Center for British Art, New Haven,
Connecticut, accession no. B.1981.25.650.
- In the Files area of the 18cWoman
- Painting of young girl wearing bonnet and bibbed apron.
- Sash, bloodstained, which George Washington received from the
dying General Braddock in 1755.
- On display at the Chicago Historical Society in "Treasures from
Mt. Vernon" from Saturday, 29 Jan 2000 to ???; the sash is stretched
over a large roll in the case so visitors could see "1709" woven in
the center. A beautiful shade of red, more ruby than crimson. A very
fine weave, appearing to be very stretchy. I don't do needle lace or
even knit, but it seemed to my amateur eye that some type of loom
would be necessary to achieve both the fineness and the width. The
whole exhibit is wonderful, and well worth the trip. --Lynn M. Zidek
- On the Web at Have Fun With
- Pictured in illustration 67 of The Techniques of Sprang, Plaiting on
Stretched Threads by Peter Collingwood.
- Polonaise. Silk...
Snowshill Manor, England. Dated 1770-1975.
- Sketch and draught available on pp. ??-?? of Janet Arnold's Patterns of Fashion 1.
- Sack gown. Cherry and white stripe silk with button front
- Sketch and draught available on pp. ??-?? of Janet Arnold's
Patterns of Fashion 1. Color
picture in The Art of Dress, Clothes
and Society by Jane Ashelford.
- Woodcut from The Progress of Man and Society. Thomas Bewick,
- Reproduced in Kidwell's article Short Gowns.
- William Hogarth (1697 - 1764). Haley & Steele. On
line at http://www.haleysteele.com/hogarth/toc.html.
- According to the site: "a comprehensive exhibition of early
impressions of his work: the great sets - A Harlot's Progress, A
Rake's Progress, Marriage A La Mode, Beer Street and Gin Lane, The
Four Times of Day, Four Prints of an Election; individual
prints, including The Distressed Poet, Midnight Modern
Conversation, The Gates of Calais, The March to Finchley, Southwark
Fair, Strolling Actresses Dressing in a Barn; and many of the
- English Caricature Prints (1720-1820) Haley &
Steele. On line at http://haleysteele.com/exhibition/caricatures/index.html.
- According to the site: "Artists and engravers include: William
Hogarth, Arthur Pond, George Townsend, James Gillray, Thomas
Rowlandson, James Sayers, H. Bunbury, J. Kay, Robert Dighton,
F. G. Byron, Isaac Cruikshank, Henry Kingsbury, J. Nixon, P. Roberts,
George Cruikshank, William Charles, and many more! The collection
consists of over 200 prints".
- New York
Footnotes: 18th Century Women's Shoes from the Costume Collection
of the Museum of the City of New York, online exhibit at the Museum of the City of New York.
Barbara Parent, guest curator.
- Exhibit of 30 or so pairs of women's shoes from 1740 to 1800, too
fragile to be physically exhibited in the museum.
- Colonial Williamsburg
- The journal of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Web site: http://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/.
- The journal of The
Costume Society. Index and recent back issues available.
- Dress, the Journal of the Costume Society of
- Available in some libraries (also try interlibrary loan). Some back issues
of Dress are available from the CSA at /www.costumesocietyamerica.com.
- The Early America Review: A Journal
of Fact and Opinion On the People, Issues and Events Of 18th Century
- A publication of Archiving
Early America. On the Web at http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/.
See also the related Early
American Digital Library.
- This journal is an unreliable source of information. For an
example, see the article Portraits
of Martha in the Winter
2000 edition. The portraits shown are unlabeled as to artist,
date, or origin, and are inaccurate, variously 19th century inventions
and copies of earlier portraits; for a detailed discussion, see the
18cWoman archives circa February 24, 2000. These portraits are also
in the related Early
American Digital Library, where they are equally unattributed.
- On the Web at http://sunsite.auc.dk/cgfa/index.html.
- The Museum of the City of New York.
- On the Web at http://www.mcny.org/.
- The National Gallery of Art.
- On the Web at http://www.nga.gov/.
- The Tate Gallery.
- On the Web at http://www.tate.org.uk/.
- The Early American
Digital Library, a part of the Archiving
Early America collection.
- This library is an unreliable source of information. For an
example of its unreliability, see several unattributed portraits of
Martha Washington, actually 19th century inventions or copies of early
portraits, at http://www.earlyamericanimages.com/port7.html;
for a detailed discussion, see the 18cWoman archives circa February
- Archiving Early America,
- From their mission
statement: "Our main focus is primary source material from 18th
Century America-- all displayed digitally. A unique array of original
newspapers, maps and writings come to life on your screen just as they
appeared to our forebears more than 200 years ago."
- The site contains a library, the Early
American Digital Library, a journal, The
Early America Review, and assorted other contents.
- This site is an unreliable source of information. For an example
of its unreliability, see the entry in this source list for the
article Portraits of Martha, Vol. III
No. 1, Winter 2000.
- The Costumer's Manifesto. On the Web at http://www.costumes.org/.
- La Couturière Parisienne. On the Web at http://www.marquise.de/.
- Pennsylvania Gazette. Available
on line at http://188.8.131.52/welcome.htm.
- Paid subscription necessary; discount was at one point available
for RevList members,
later discontinued but can't hurt to ask.
- Greuze, Jean-Baptiste. 1725-1805. French.
- Greuze has a penchant for a certain pastoral type of painting for
a sentimental market. The neckline as seen in The spoiled child and The Village Betrothal for instance
is so emblematic of his work as to be almost an identifying
characteristic. I think of his work as being similar to Francis
Hayman's. He's not awful as a primary source, but I would never take
his representation alone. --Nancy Watt
- Collections of works: On the Web at the
WebMuseum, Paris. On the Web at the CGFA.
- Works cited here: The Village
- Walton, Henry. English.
- Henry Walton's paintings for the most part seem to be in private
collections and therefore it is always good to get word if a new one
is spotted as he is one of the best real-life painters of his era.
- Works cited here: Plucking the
Turkey, The Silver
Copyright © Sue
Felshin, 2000-2011. All Rights Reserved. Individuals' comments
reprinted from 18cWoman with their permission.
Last modified 22 June 2011.