Fast Bilateral Filter

Sylvain Paris and Frédo Durand
Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Papers

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A Fast Approximation of the Bilateral Filter using a Signal Processing Approach
Sylvain Paris and Frédo Durand
MIT technical report 2006 (MIT-CSAIL-TR-2006-073)
  • This technical report extends our ECCV'06 paper with more discussions and details (including algorithm pseudo-code), additional comparisons and validations, and extensions to cross bilateral filtering and color images.
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A Fast Approximation of the Bilateral Filter using a Signal Processing Approach
Sylvain Paris and Frédo Durand
European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV'06)
  • This article introduces the higher-dimensional representation of images and describes the algorithm for gray-level images.
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Fast Bilateral Filtering for the Display of High-Dynamic-Range Images
Frédo Durand and Julie Dorsey
ACM Transactions of Graphics (Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH'02 Conference)

Code

• C++ •

The sources are in C++. The provided makefile compiles everything. To reproduce the running times of our paper, you need to compile with optimization options turned on. They are off by default because they depend on your machine. The README.txt file contains more details. To make the code easy to share, only PPM images are supported. Please, cite our paper if you use this code for your research work.

• Matlab •

Jiawen Chen has implemented our technique in Matlab. You can download the Matlab code from his webpage.

References

• Original Articles •

These articles independently discovered the bilateral filter.

Non-Linear Gaussian Filters Performing Edge Preserving Diffusion. Volker Aurich and Jörg Weule. Proceedings of the DAGM Symposium (DAGM'95). 1995. link
SUSAN -- A New Approach to Low Level Image Processing. Stephen M. Smith and J. Michael Brady. International Journal of Computer Vision (IJCV'97). 1997. link
Bilateral Filtering for Gray and Color Images. Carlo Tomasi and Roberto Manduchi. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV'98). 1998. link

• Acceleration Techniques •

These articles describe acceleration techniques for bilateral filtering. See our article for details.

On the Bilateral Filter and Ways to Improve It. Michael Elad. IEEE Transactions On Image Processing (TIP'02). 2002. link
Separable Bilateral Filtering for Fast Video Preprocessing. Tuan Q. Pham and Lucas J. van Vliet. IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo (ICME'05). 2005. link
Spatiotonal Adaptivity in Super-Resolution of Undersampled Image Sequences. Tuan Q. Pham. Ph.D. Thesis (Delft University of Technology). 2006. link
Fast Median and Bilateral Filtering. Ben Weiss. ACM Transactions of Graphics (Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH'06 Conference). 2006. link

• Theoretical Studies and Extensions •

The following papers study theoretical aspects of bilateral filtering, often leading to a new processing technique. See our article for details.

Diffusions and Confusions in Signal and Image Processing. Nir Sochen, Ron Kimmel, and Alfred M. Bruckstein. Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision. 2001. link
Local Mode Filtering. Joost van de Weijer and Rein van den Boomgaard. Proceedings of the conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR'01). 2001. link
On the Bilateral Filter and Ways to Improve It. Michael Elad. IEEE Transactions On Image Processing (TIP'02). 2002. link
A Fundamental Relationship between Bilateral Filtering, Adaptive Smoothing and the Nonlinear Diffusion Equation. Danny Barash. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI'02). 2002. link
The Trilateral Filter for High Contrast Images and Meshes. Prasun Choudhury and John E. Tumblin. Proceedings of the Eurographics Symposium on Rendering (EGSR'03). 2003. link
The Staircasing Effect in Neighborhood Filters and its Solution. Antoni Buades, Bartomeu Coll, and Jean-Michel Morel. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing (TIP'06). 2006. link
Channel Smoothing: Efficient Robust Smoothing of Low-Level Signal Features. Michael Felsberg, Per-Erik Forssén, and Hanno Scharr. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (PAMI'06). 2006. link
On Robust Estimation and Smoothing with Spatial and Tonal Kernels. Pavel Mrázek, Joachim Weickert, and Andres Bruhn. A chapter of Geometric Properties from Incomplete Data, Springer. 2006. link

• Applications •

These articles describe applications buit upon bilateral filtering.

Image-Based Modeling and Photo Editing. Byong Mok Oh, Max Chen, Julie Dorsey, and Frédo Durand. Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH'01 Conference. 2001. link
Fast Bilateral Filtering for the Display of High-Dynamic-Range Images. Frédo Durand and Julie Dorsey. ACM Transactions of Graphics (Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH'02 Conference). 2002. link
Adaptive Demosaicking. Rajeev Ramanath and Wesley E. Snyder. Journal of Electronic Imaging. 2003. link
Bilateral Mesh Denoising. Shachar Fleishman, Iddo Drori, and Daniel Cohen-Or. ACM Transactions of Graphics (Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH'03 Conference). 2003. link
Non-Iterative, Feature-Preserving Mesh Smoothing. Thouis R. Jones, Frédo Durand, and Mathieu Desbrun. ACM Transactions of Graphics (Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH'03 Conference). 2003. link
Flash Photography Enhancement via Intrinsic Relighting. Elmar Eisemann and Frédo Durand. ACM Transactions of Graphics (Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH'04 Conference). 2004. link
Capture of Hair Geometry from Multiple Images. Sylvain Paris, Hector Briceño, and François Sillion. ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH'04 conference). 2004. link
Digital Photography with Flash and No-Flash Image Pairs. Georg Petschnigg, Maneesh Agrawala, Hugues Hoppe, Richard Szeliski, Michael Cohen, and Kentaro Toyama. ACM Transactions of Graphics (Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH'04 Conference). 2004. link
Trilateral Filtering for Biomedical Images. Wilbur C. K. Wong, Albert C. S. Chung, and Simon C. H. Yu. Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI'04). 2004. link
Retinex by Two Bilateral Filters. Michael Elad. Proceedings of the Scale-Space conference. 2005. link
Video Enhancement using Per-pixel Virtual Exposures. Eric P. Bennett and Leonard McMillan. ACM Transactions of Graphics (Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH'05 Conference). 2005. link
Bilateral Filtering-based Optical Flow Estimation with Occlusion Detection. Jiangjian Xiao, Hui Cheng, Harpreet Sawhney, Cen Rao, and Michael Isnardi. Proceedings of the European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV'06). 2006. link
Real-time Video Abstraction. Holger Winnemöller, Sven C. Olsen, and Bruce Gooch. ACM Transactions of Graphics (Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH'06 Conference). 2006. link
Two-scale Tone Management for Photographic Look. Soonmin Bae, Sylvain Paris, and Frédo Durand. ACM Transactions of Graphics (Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH'06 Conference). 2006. link
Image-based Material Editing. Erum Arif Khan, Erik Reinhard, Roland Fleming, and Heinrich Buelthoff. ACM Transactions of Graphics (Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH'06 Conference). 2006. link
Particle Video: Long-Range Motion Estimation using Point Trajectories. Peter Sand and Seth Teller. Proceedings of the Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Conference (CVPR'06). 2006. link

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by a National Science Foundation CAREER award 0447561 ``Transient Signal Processing for Realistic Imagery,'' an NSF Grant No. 0429739 ``Parametric Analysis and Transfer of Pictorial Style,'' a grant from Royal Dutch/Shell Group, and the Oxygen consortium. Frédo Durand acknowledges a Microsoft Research New Faculty Fellowship, and Sylvain Paris was partially supported by a Lavoisier Fellowship from the French ``Ministère des Affaires Étrangères.''

Last update: Mar. 2nd, 2007
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