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\begin{document}
\noindent {\large Essential Coding Theory \hfill
Madhu Sudan\\[-.1in]
6.896 \hfill \mbox{}\\[-.1in]
Due: Wednesday, September 11, 2002\hfill \mbox{}\\[.4in]}
{\LARGE \centering Problem Set 1 \\[.4in] \par}
\section*{Instructions}
\begin{description}
\item[References:]
In general, try not to run to reference material to answer
questions. Try to think about the problem to see if you can
solve it without consulting any external sources. If this fails,
you may look up any reference material.
\item[Collaboration:]
Collaboration is allowed, but limit yourselves to
groups of size at most four.
\item[Writeup:]
You must write the solutions in latex, by yourselves.
Cite all references and collaborators.
Explain why you needed to consult any of the references,
if you did consult any.
\end{description}
\section*{Problems}
\begin{enumerate}
\item {\sf (Linear Algebra Review):} {\bf (Need not be turned in.)}
\begin{enumerate}
\item Given a $k \times n$ matrix
$G$ with 0/1 entries, of rank $k$ over $\Z_2$,
generating a linear code
$C = \{\vec x \cdot G | \vec x\}$,
show that there exists an $n \times m$ matrix $H$, (henceforth
referred to as the parity check matrix), such that $C =
\{\vec y | \vec y H = \vec 0\}$. What is the relationship
between $m$, $n$ and $k$ above?
{\sf
\begin{quote}
By elementary linear algebra involving row operations (replacing
row $i$ by row $i$ plus row $j$), and column exchanges, we can
write $G$ as $( I_k | A )$ where $A$ is some $k \times n-k$ matrix.
Now the matrix $H = \left( \begin{array}{c} -A \\ I_{n-k} \end{array}
\right)$ satisfies $G H = 0$. Thus every vector $\vec y = \vec x G$
satisfies $\vec y H = \vec 0$. Furthermore standard linear
algebra implies that the space of vectors that satisfies $\vec y H = 0$
is at most $k$ and so this must be the space spanned by $G$. The
relationship between $n,k,m$ is thus $m = n - k$.
\end{quote}
}
\item Give an efficient algorithm to compute such an $H$, given
$G$, and vice versa.
{\sf
\begin{quote}
Essentially Guassian Elimination. Writing the code is tedious.
\end{quote}
}
\item Give an explicit description of the generator matrix
of a Hamming code of block length $2^{\ell}-1$.
{\sf
\begin{quote}
Lets permute the coordinates of the Hamming code, so that
the parity check matrix has rows of non-increasing weight
(and so the last $\ell$ rows form the identity matrix).
The generator corresponding to this permutation of the coordinates
has as its rows vectors of the form $\langle \vec {e_i}, \vec {b_i}
\rangle$ where for $i \in [2^{\ell} - \ell - 1]$, the vectors
$\vec {e_i}$'s are vectors of length $2^{\ell} - \ell - 1$
with the $i$th vectors being $1$ exactly in the $i$th coordinate, and
$\vec{b_i}$'s are all vectors of length ${\ell}$ with at least
two coordinates being $1$'s.
\end{quote}
}
\end{enumerate}
\item {\sf (Binary Hamming code \& bound):}
\begin{enumerate}
\item
What is the rate of the Hamming code of block length $2^\ell-1$?
{\sf
\begin{quote}
By Problem 1.(a), the message length of the code is
$2^{\ell} - \ell - 1$ and so the rate is $1 - \frac{\ell}{2^{\ell} -1}$.
\end{quote}
}
\item
Show that if $C$ is a $t$-error-correcting code in $\{0,1\}^n$,
then $|C| \leq 2^n/\vol(n,t)$, where $\vol(n,t) = \sum_{i=0}^t
\binom{n}i$.
{\sf
\begin{quote}
By definition, the Hamming balls of radius $t$ around
codewords are non-intersecting in a $t$-error correcting
code. Since each such Hamming ball is a subset of $\{0,1\}^n$
we get that the sum of their volumes is at most $2^n$.
Each has volume equal to $\vol(n,t)$ and this gives the bound.
\end{quote}
}
\item Conclude that the Hamming codes of Part (a) are optimal
in their performance.
{\sf
\begin{quote}
Hamming codes are $1$-error correcting codes. The bound of
Part (b) implies such codes may have at most $2^n/(n+1)$
codewords. Part (a) shows that Hamming codes do achieve this
bound exactly when $n = 2^{\ell - 1}$.
(The number of codewords
is $2^{2^{\ell} - \ell - 1} = 2^{n - \ell} = 2^n/2^{\ell} = 2^n/(n+1)$.)
\end{quote}
}
\end{enumerate}
\item (Extra Credit Question) For general $q$, give the best
construction you can of a $q$-ary code of minimum distance $3$.
{\sf
\begin{quote}
When $q$ is a prime power, we can let $\Sigma$ the alphabet be
$\F_q$ a finite field of size $q$. We can then pick $H$, the
parity check matrix, to be all non-zero vectors in $\F_q^\ell$
with the first non-zero entry being $1$ (so no vector is zero
and no two are scalar multiples of each other). This gives
an $n \times \ell$ parity check matrix with $n = (q^{\ell} - 1)/(q-1)$
and thus a $[n = (q^{\ell} - 1)/(q-1), n - \ell, 3]_q$ code.
This can be show to be optimal as in Problem 2.
I don't know what happens if $q$ is not a prime power. I'd be
interested to find out!
\end{quote}
}
\item {\sf (Pairwise independent spaces):}
\begin{enumerate}
\item Let $H$ be the $(2^{\ell} - 1) \times \ell$ parity check
matrix of a binary Hamming code. Show that the collection of
column vectors $\{H \vec x^T | \vec x \in \{0,1\}^\ell\}$ forms
a pairwise independent space.
{\sf
\begin{quote}
This is a special case of a more general result. If $C$ is a
code of minimum distance $d$, then any $d-1$ rows of its parity
check matrix $H$ are linearly independent. This implies that
the projection of $H \vec{x}^T$ to any $d-1$ coordinates
is random when $\vec{x}$ is random. (This is worked out in
greater detail below, where $M$ is supposed to be the
$d-1$ rows of $H$ that we are focussing on.) Thus the set of
vectors $\{H \vec x^T | \vec x\}$
forms a $(d-1)$-wise independent space. Using the fact that
Hamming codes have $d=3$, gives us the pairwise independent case.
{\bf Claim:} If $M$ is a $(d-1)\times \ell$ matrix over $\F_q$
of rank $d-1$, then $M \vec x^T$ is random if $\vec x$ is chosen
randomly from $\F_q^{\ell}$.
{\bf Proof:} Write $M$ as $(A | B)$ where $A$ is a square matrix
of full rank. Write $\vec x$ correspondingly as
$\langle \vec {x_1} \vec {x_2} \rangle$. Now consider the probability
that $M \vec x^T = \vec a$ for
a fixed $\vec a \in \F_q^{d-1}$. This is equivalent to the
condition that $\vec {x_1} = A^{-1} (\vec a - B \vec {x_2})$ which
happens with probability exactly $q^{-(d-1)}$.
\end{quote}
}
\item (Extra Credit Question) Show that any pairwise independent
space on $n$ bits must contain at least $n+1$ points.
{\sf
\begin{quote}
{\bf Sketch:} (We'll see rigorous proofs that follow
the outline below, later in the course. Right now, you should at
least scan the proof to get the gist of it.)
Let's write bits as $+1$ or $-1$. So the $n$ bit vectors
in the sample space now become vectors in $\{+1,-1\}^n$.
Say we have $m$ such vectors $\vec{v_1},\ldots,\vec{v_m}$.
Consider the $m \times n$ matrix $M$ with the vectors
$\vec{v_i}$'s as its rows. Let $\vec{c_1},\ldots,\vec{c_n}$
be its columns. Augment the $\vec{c_j}$'s with the vector
$\vec{c_0}$ which is a $1$ in every entry. From the one-wise
independence of the vectors we have that $\vec{c_0}$ is orthogonal
to the remaining $\vec{c_j}$'s, when viewed as vectors over the reals.
From the pairwise independence
we now have that $\vec{c_j}$'s are pairwise orthogonal too.
Thus we have $n+1$ vectors in
$m$-dimensional real space, which are pairwise orthogonal.
Standard linear algebra implies these are the number of dimensions
is at least the number of vectors, i.e., $m \geq n+1$.
\end{quote}
}
\end{enumerate}
\item
A Directed Cut (DiCut) in a directed graph $G = (V,E)$ is an ordered
partition $(S,\overline{S})$ of $V$. The size of the DiCut is the
number of edges $(u,v) \in E$ with $u \in S$ and $v \in \overline{S}$.
\begin{enumerate}
\item Show that every graph has a DiCut of size at least $|E|/4$.
{\sf
\begin{quote}
Pick a random partition $(S,\overline{S})$ of $G$, i.e., each
vertex $u \in V$ decides independently with probability half
whether it wants to be in $S$ or $\overline{S}$.
The probability that a given edge is in the DiCut is $\frac14$.
Thus, by linearity of expectations, the expected number of edges
in this random cut is $\frac{|E|}4$. In particular there exists
a cut with $\frac{|E|}4$ edges.
\end{quote}
}
\item Give a deterministic polynomial time algorithm to find
such a DiCut in a given graph.
\end{enumerate}
(There are two natural solutions to this problem - one that involves
pairwise independence and one that doesn't. Guess which one I want.)
{\sf
\begin{quote}
Let $X_u$ denote the bit corresponding to choice of vertex $u$.
The analysis in Part (a) continues to work if the choices $X_u$
are pairwise independent. Since we know (by Problem 4.(a) and
the properties of the Hamming code) that pairwise independent spaces
of vectors exist in $\{0,1\}^n$ with $n+1$ sample points, we can
pick such a space and we know for one vector of choices
$\langle X_u\rangle_u$ in
this space, the choices give a cut with value at least the expectation,
i.e. with at least $|E|/4$ edges in the DiCut.
\end{quote}
}
\item {\sf The Hat Problem:}
\begin{enumerate}
\item Lets say that a directed graph $G$ is a subgraph of the
$n$-dimensional hypercube if its vertex set is $\{0,1\}^n$
and if $u \to v$ is an edge in $G$, then $u$ and $v$ differ in
at most one coordinate. Let $K(G)$ be the number of vertices
of $G$ with in-degree at least one, and out-degree zero.
Show that the probability of winning the hat problem equals
the maximum, over directed subgraphs $G$ of the $n$-dimensional
hypercube, of $K(G)/2^n$.
{\sf
\begin{quote}
Assume w.l.o.g. that we only consider graphs which do not
contain both the edge pairs $u \to v$ and $v \to u$, since
this graph does not have a larger $K(G)$ than the graph in
which both these edges are deleted.
We can now draw a 1-1 correspondence between strategies for guessing
and subgraphs of the hypercube (provided the subgraph does
not contain edges of the form $u \to v$ and $v \to u$).
The
vertices correspond to the assignment of the hats, and the unordered
pair of vertices $\{v,u\}$ where $v$ and $u$ differ in only the
$i$th coordinate corresponds to the view of the $i$th player.
If on this view the player guesses that $u$ is the right view,
then lets draw an edge $v \to u$, if the player guess that $v$
is the right view, lets draw an edge from $u \to v$ and lets
not draw any edges between $u$ and $v$ if the player abstains.
In the graph obtained this way every vertex with positive indegree
and zero outdegree corresponds to a winning position. Thus the
winning probability corresponding to this strategy is
$K(G)/2^n$.
\end{quote}
}
\item Using the fact that the out-degree of any vertex is at most
$n$, show that $K(G)/2^n$ is at most $\frac{n}{n+1}$ for any
directed subgraph $G$ of the $n$-dimensional hypercube.
{\sf
\begin{quote}
\newcommand{\indeg}{\mbox{in-deg}}
\newcommand{\outdeg}{\mbox{out-deg}}
Let $S$ be the set of vertices with positive in-degree and
out-degree zero in $G$. I.e. $|S| = K(G)$.
We have $\sum_{v \in \{0,1\}^n} \indeg(v) \geq
\sum_{v \in S} \indeg(v) \geq |S| = K(G)$.
We have $\sum_{v \in \{0,1\}^n} \outdeg(v) =
\sum_{v \not\in S} \outdeg(v) \leq n (2^n - |S|)$.
And finally $\sum_{v} \indeg(v) = \sum_{v} \outdeg(v)$.
Thus we get $K(G) \leq n (2^n - K(G)) ~~\Leftrightarrow~~
K(G)/2^n \leq \frac{n}{n+1}$ for any graph $G$.
\end{quote}
}
\item Show that if $n = 2^{\ell} -1$, then there exists a directed
subgraph $G$ of the $n$-dimensional hypercube with $K(G)/2^n =
\frac{n}{n+1}$. (This is where the Hamming code comes in.)
{\sf
\begin{quote}
Let $C \subseteq \{0,1\}^n$ be any code of distance at least
$3$. Construct $G$ as follows: For every
pair of vertices such that $u \in C$ and $v \not\in C$ such that $
\Delta(u,v) = 1$, draw an edge $u \to v$. Since the distance
of the code is at least $3$, this ensures
there are no edges from $u \to v$ and $v \to u$.
Furthermore, every vertex at distance $1$ from a codeword
has out-degree zero and so $K(G) = n \cdot |C|$. To optimize
this construction, we need a code of distance $3$ which has
maximum number of codewords. Hamming codes give this to us,
when they exist, with $|C| \geq 2^n/(n+1)$ and this gives
the desired result.
\end{quote}
}
\end{enumerate}
\end{enumerate}
\end{document}