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\title{MAT 301 Problem Set 1\\{\large Posted: January 7, 2012}\\{\large Due: January 21, 2012}\\{\large Worth: 100 points}}
\author{}
\date{}
\begin{document}
\maketitle
\def\sslwe{\mathsf{ssLWE}}
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\subsection*{Problem $1$: Breaking Ciphers (10 points)}
The following ciphertext is encrypted under either the Caesar Cipher {\em or} the
Scytale cipher. I am not going to tell you which.
Decrypt it.
\[ \Large{\texttt{TSDAHTSEEWOSLOFAARCR}} \]
Which scheme was used to encrypt the message?
\subsection*{Problem $2$: Euler Totient Function (20 points)}
\begin{enumerate}
\item {\bf (6 points)} Compute the values of the Euler Totient Function (also called the Euler Phi Function) $\phi(n)$ for the
following values of $n$: (a) $n=257$, (b) $n = 32768$.
\item {\bf (6 points)} If $n=pqr$ where $p$, $q$ and $r$ are primes, what is $\phi(n)$? Prove your answer.
\item {\bf (6 points)}
Find four numbers $n$ such that
$\phi(n) = 4$.
\item {\bf (2 points)}
Find the only number $n$ such that
$\phi(n)$ is odd.
\end{enumerate}
\subsection*{Problem $3$: Greatest Common Divisors (70 points)}
\begin{enumerate}
\item {\bf (10 points)}
Find the following greatest common divisors. Show your work. (a) gcd(252,291), and (b) gcd(16534528044,8332745927).
\item {\bf (10 points)}
Find an integer solution to each of the following equations if they exist: (a) 12a+18b = 56, and (b) 16x + 25y = 3.
\item {\bf (15 points)}
Prove that if $gcd(x,y) = 1$, then $gcd(x+y, x-y)$ is either $1$ or $2$.
\item {\bf (10 points)}
Are there {\em positive} integer solutions to
\[ 202a + 74b = 7638 \]
If yes, find all of them.
\item {\bf (10 points)}
A condo building has units at two rates: most rent at \$87/week, but a few rent at \$123/week. When all are rented the gross income is \$8733/week.
How many units of each type are there?
\item {\bf (15 points)}
The Fibonacci sequence of numbers $F_0, F_1, F_2, \ldots$ is defined by the following recurrence:
$F_0 = 0, F_1 = 1$ and $F_i = F_{i-1} + F_{i-2} \mbox{ for all $i > 1$}$.
Thus, the first few Fibonacci numbers are
\[ F_0 = 0, F_1 = 1, F_2 = 1, F_3 = 2, F_4 = 3, F_5 = 5, F_6 = 8, F_7 = 13, \ldots \]
What does the Euclidean algorithm return on input $(F_i, F_{i+1})$?
Prove your answer. (Hint: try this out with small values of $i$, observe a pattern and try to generalize. One way to do the proof is using mathematical induction.).
\end{enumerate}
\end{document}