Complete Publications
Recent Publications/Preprints
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Maxwell Fishelson, Noah Golowich: NearOptimal NoRegret Learning in General Games.
In the 35th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2021. Oral. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Patroklos Stefanou, Rui Yao, Manolis Zampetakis: Efficient Truncated Linear Regression with Unknown Noise Variance.
In the 35th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2021.
 Yuval Dagan, Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala, Surbhi Goel, Anthimos Vardis Kandiros: Statistical Estimation from Dependent Data.
In the 38th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2021. arXiv.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Vasilis Kontonis, Christos Tzamos, Manolis Zampetakis: A Statistical Taylor Theorem and Extrapolation of Truncated Densities.
In the 34th Annual Conference on Learning Theory, COLT 2021. arXiv.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Qinxuan Pan: SampleOptimal and Efficient Learning of Tree Ising models.
In the 53rd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2021. arXiv. twitter summary
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Stratis Skoulakis, Manolis Zampetakis: The Complexity of Constrained MinMax Optimization.
In the 53rd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2021. arXiv. twitter summary
 Yuval Dagan, Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala, Anthimos Vardis Kandiros: Learning Ising Models from One or Multiple Samples.
In the 53rd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2021. arXiv. twitter summary
 Jelena Diakonikolas, Constantinos Daskalakis, Michael I. Jordan: Efficient Methods for Structured NonconvexNonconcave MinMax Optimization.
In the 24th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics (AISTATS), AISTATS 2021. arXiv
 Mucong Ding, Constantinos Daskalakis, Soheil Feizi: GANs with Conditional Independence Graphs: On Subadditivity of Probability Divergences.
In the 24th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics (AISTATS), AISTATS 2021. Oral. arXiv
 Fotini Christia, Michael Curry, Constantinos Daskalakis, Erik Demaine, John P. Dickerson, MohammadTaghi Hajiaghayi, Adam Hesterberg, Marina Knittel, Aidan Milliff: Scalable Equilibrium Computation in Multiagent Influence Games on Networks.
In the 34th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, AAAI 2021.
 Noah Golowich, Sarath Pattathil, Constantinos Daskalakis: Tight lastiterate convergence rates for noregret learning in multiplayer games.
In the 34th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2020. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Dylan Foster, Noah Golowich: Independent Policy Gradient Methods for Competitive Reinforcement Learning.
In the 34th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2020. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Dhruv Rohatgi, Manolis Zampetakis: Truncated Linear Regression in High Dimensions.
In the 34th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2020. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Dhruv Rohatgi, Manolis Zampetakis: ConstantExpansion Suffices for Compressed Sensing with Generative Priors.
In the 34th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2020. Spotlight. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Manolis Zampetakis: More Revenue from Two Samples via Factor Revealing SDPs.
In the 21st ACM Conference on Economics and Computation, EC 2020. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Maxwell Fishelson, Brendan Lucier, Vasilis Syrgkanis, Santhoshini Velusamy: Simple, Credible, and ApproximatelyOptimal Auctions.
In the 21st ACM Conference on Economics and Computation, EC 2020. arXiv
 Johannes Brustle, Yang Cai, Constantinos Daskalakis: MultiItem Mechanisms without ItemIndependence: Learnability via Robustness.
In the 21st ACM Conference on Economics and Computation, EC 2020. arXiv
 Qi Lei, Jason D. Lee, Alexandros G. Dimakis, Constantinos P. Daskalakis: SGD Learns OneLayer Networks in WGANs.
In the 37th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2020. arXiv
 Noah Golowich, Sarath Pattathil, Constantinos Daskalakis, Asuman Ozdaglar: Last Iterate is Slower than Averaged Iterate in Smooth ConvexConcave Saddle Point Problems.
In the 33nd Annual Conference on Learning Theory, COLT 2020. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala, Ioannis Panageas: Logistic regression with peergroup effects via inference in higherorder Ising models.
In the 23rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, AISTATS 2020. arXiv.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Andrew Ilyas, Manolis Zampetakis: A Theoretical and Practical Framework for Regression and Classification from Truncated Samples.
In the 23rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, AISTATS 2020. arXiv.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Themis Gouleakis, Christos Tzamos, Manolis Zampetakis: Computationally and Statistically Efficient Truncated Regression.
In the 32nd Annual Conference on Learning Theory, COLT 2019. arXiv.
 Yuval Dagan, Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala, Siddhartha Jayanti: Generalization and learning under Dobrushin's condition.
In the 32nd Annual Conference on Learning Theory, COLT 2019. arXiv.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala, Ioannis Panageas: Regression from Dependent Observations.
In the 51st Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing, STOC 2019. arXiv
 Ajil Jalal, Andrew Ilyas, Constantinos Daskalakis, Alexandros G. Dimakis: The Robust Manifold Defense: Adversarial Training using Generative Models. arXiv, 2019.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Ioannis Panageas: LastIterate Convergence: ZeroSum Games and Constrained MinMax Optimization.
In the 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science (ITCS) conference, ITCS 2019. arXiv.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Ioannis Panageas: The Limit Points of (Optimistic) Gradient Descent in MinMax Optimization.
In the 32nd Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2018. arXiv.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala, Siddhartha Jayanti: HOGWILD!Gibbs can be PanAccurate.
In the 32nd Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS2018. arXiv.
 Nima Anari, Constantinos Daskalakis, Wolfgang Maass, Christos Papadimitriou, Amin Saberi, Santosh Vempala: Smoothed Analysis of Discrete Tensor Decomposition and Assemblies of Neurons.
In the 32nd Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2018. arXiv.
 Jayadev Acharya, Arnab Bhattacharyya, Constantinos Daskalakis, Saravanan Kandasamy: Learning and Testing Causal Models with Interventions.
In the 32nd Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2018. arXiv.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Themis Gouleakis, Christos Tzamos, Manolis Zampetakis: Efficient Statistics, in High Dimensions, from Truncated Samples.
In the 59th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2018. arXiv.
 Shipra Agrawal, Constantinos Daskalakis, Vahab Mirrokni, Balasubramanian Sivan: Robust Repeated Auctions under Heterogeneous Buyer Behavior.
In the 19th ACM conference on Economics and Computation, EC 2018. arXiv.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala, Nick Gravin: Testing Symmetric Markov Chains from a Single Trajectory.
In the 31st Annual Conference on Learning Theory, COLT 2018. arXiv.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Christos Tzamos, Manolis Zampetakis: Bootstrapping EM via EM and Convergence Analysis in the Naive Bayes Model.
In the 21st International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, AISTATS 2018.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Andrew Ilyas, Vasilis Syrgkanis, Haoyang Zeng: Training GANs with Optimism.
In the 6th International Conference on Learning Representations, ICLR 2018. arXiv.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Christos Tzamos and Manolis Zampetakis: A Converse to Banach's Fixed Point Theorem and its CLS Completeness.
In the 50th Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing, STOC 2018. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Gautam Kamath and John Wright: Which Distribution Distances are Sublinearly Testable?.
In the 29th Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, SODA 2018. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala and Gautam Kamath: Testing Ising Models
In the 29th Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, SODA 2018. arXiv
Journal version in IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 65(11): 68296852, 2019. ieee
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala and Gautam Kamath: Concentration of Multilinear Functions of the Ising Model with Applications to Network Data.
In the 31st Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2017. arXiv
 Yang Cai and Constantinos Daskalakis: Learning MultiItem Auctions with (or without) Samples.
In the 58th IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS), FOCS 2017. arxiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis and Yasushi Kawase: Optimal Stopping Rules for Sequential Hypothesis Testing.
In the 25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA), ESA 2017. pdf
 Bryan Cai, Constantinos Daskalakis and Gautam Kamath: Priv'IT: Private and Sample Efficient Identity Testing.
In the 34th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2017. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Christos Tzamos and Manolis Zampetakis: Ten Steps of EM Suffice for Mixtures of Two Gaussians.
In the 30th Annual Conference on Learning Theory, COLT 2017. Preliminary version presented at NeurIPS 2016 Workshop on NonConvex Optimization for Machine Learning. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis and Qinxuan Pan: Square Hellinger Subadditivity for Bayesian Networks and its Applications to Identity Testing.
In the 30th Annual Conference on Learning Theory, COLT 2017. arXiv
Selected Publications
Equilibrium Complexity:
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Paul W. Goldberg and Christos H. Papadimitriou: The Complexity of Computing a Nash Equilibrium.
In the 38th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2006.
Journal version as SIAM Journal on Computing, 39(1), 195259, May 2009. (Invited, special issue for STOC 2006.) pdf
Expository article in Communications of the ACM 52(2):8997, 2009. (Invited.) pdf

Constantinos Daskalakis: On the Complexity of Approximating a Nash Equilibrium.
In the 22nd Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, SODA 2011.
ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG), 9(3): 23, 2013. Special Issue for SODA 2011. Invited. pdf
 Constantinos Daskalakis and Christos Papadimitriou: Approximate Nash Equilibria in Anonymous Games.
Journal of Economic Theory, 156:207245, 2015. pdf
Journal version of papers in FOCS 2007, FOCS 2008, and STOC 2009.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Stratis Skoulakis, Manolis Zampetakis: The Complexity of Constrained MinMax Optimization.
In the 53rd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2021. arXiv. twitter summary
Equilibrium Computation and Machine Learning
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Maxwell Fishelson, Noah Golowich: NearOptimal NoRegret Learning in General Games.
In the 35th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2021. Oral. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Stratis Skoulakis, Manolis Zampetakis: The Complexity of Constrained MinMax Optimization.
In the 53rd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2021. arXiv. twitter summary
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Andrew Ilyas, Vasilis Syrgkanis, Haoyang Zeng: Training GANs with Optimism.
In the 6th International Conference on Learning Representations, ICLR 2018. arXiv.
 Noah Golowich, Sarath Pattathil, Constantinos Daskalakis: Tight lastiterate convergence rates for noregret learning in multiplayer games.
In the 34th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2020. arXiv
Game Theory
 Constantinos Daskalakis and Qinxuan Pan: A CounterExample to Karlin's Strong Conjecture for Fictitious Play.
In the 55th IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2014. arxiv
 Yang Cai, Ozan Candogan, Constantinos Daskalakis and Christos Papadimitriou: Zerosum Polymatrix Games: A Generalization of Minmax.
Mathematics of Operations Research, 41(2): 648655, 2016. pdf
Truncated Statistics ∩ Machine Learning ∩ Missing Data
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Themis Gouleakis, Christos Tzamos, Manolis Zampetakis: Efficient Statistics, in High Dimensions, from Truncated Samples.
In the 59th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2018. arXiv.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Themis Gouleakis, Christos Tzamos, Manolis Zampetakis: Computationally and Statistically Efficient Truncated Regression.
In the 32nd Annual Conference on Learning Theory, COLT 2019. arXiv.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Dhruv Rohatgi, Manolis Zampetakis: Truncated Linear Regression in High Dimensions.
In the 34th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2020. arXiv
Statistical Physics ∩ Machine Learning ∩ Dependent Data
 Yuval Dagan, Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala, Siddhartha Jayanti: Generalization and learning under Dobrushin's condition.
In the 32nd Annual Conference on Learning Theory, COLT 2019. arXiv.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala, Ioannis Panageas: Regression from Dependent Observations.
In the 51st Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing, STOC 2019. arXiv
 Yuval Dagan, Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala, Anthimos Vardis Kandiros: Learning Ising Models from One or Multiple Samples.
In the 53rd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2021. arXiv.
Phylogenetics:
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Elchanan Mossel and Sebastien Roch: Optimal Phylogenetic Reconstruction.
In the 38th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2006. arXiv
Journal version as Probability Theory and Related Fields, 149(12):149189, 2011.
Coding Theory:

Sanjeev Arora, Constantinos Daskalakis and David Steurer: MessagePassing Algorithms and Improved LP Decoding.
In the 41st ACM Symposium On Theory of Computing, STOC 2009.
Journal version as IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 58(12):72607271, 2012. pdf
Probability Theory:
 Constantinos Daskalakis and Christos Papadimitriou: Sparse Covers for Sums of Indicators.
Probability Theory and Related Fields, 162(3):679705, 2015. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Anindya De, Gautam Kamath and Christos Tzamos: A SizeFree CLT for Poisson Multinomials and its Applications.
In the 48th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2016. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala and Gautam Kamath: Concentration of Multilinear Functions of the Ising Model with Applications to Network Data.
In the 31st Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2017. arXiv
Mechanism Design:
 Yang Cai, Constantinos Daskalakis and Matt Weinberg: An Algorithmic Characterization of MultiDimensional Mechanisms.
In the 44th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2012. ECCC Report.
 Yang Cai, Constantinos Daskalakis and Matt Weinberg: Understanding Incentives: Mechanism Design becomes Algorithm Design.
In the 54th IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2013. arxiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Alan Deckelbaum and Christos Tzamos: Mechanism Design via Optimal Transport.
In the 14th ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce, EC 2013. Best Paper and Best Student Paper Award.
pdf
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Alan Deckelbaum and Christos Tzamos: Strong Duality for a MultipleGood Monopolist.
In the 16th ACM Conference on Economics and Computation (EC), EC 2015. arXiv
Journal version as Econometrica, 85(3):735767, 2017.
 Yang Cai, Constantinos Daskalakis and Christos H. Papadimitriou: Optimum Statistical Estimation with Strategic Data Sources.
In the 28th Annual Conference on Learning Theory (COLT), COLT 2015. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Christos Papadimitriou and Christos Tzamos: Does Information Revelation Improve Revenue?.
In the 17th ACM Conference on Economics and Computation (EC), EC 2016. Invited to Special Issue. pdf
 Constantinos Daskalakis and Vasilis Syrgkanis: Learning in Auctions: Regret is Hard, Envy is Easy.
In the 57th IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS), FOCS 2016. arxiv
 Yang Cai and Constantinos Daskalakis: Learning MultiItem Auctions with (or without) Samples.
In the 58th IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS), FOCS 2017. arxiv
Property Testing ∩ Statistics:
 Jayadev Acharya, Constantinos Daskalakis and Gautam Kamath: Optimal Testing for Properties of Distributions.
In the 29th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2015. Spotlight Paper. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis and Qinxuan Pan: Square Hellinger Subadditivity for Bayesian Networks and its Applications to Identity Testing.
In the 30th Annual Conference on Learning Theory, COLT 2017. arXiv
 Bryan Cai, Constantinos Daskalakis and Gautam Kamath: Priv'IT: Private and Sample Efficient Identity Testing.
In the 34th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2017. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Gautam Kamath and John Wright: Which Distribution Distances are Sublinearly Testable?
In the 29th Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, SODA 2018. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala and Gautam Kamath: Testing Ising Models
In the 29th Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, SODA 2018. arXiv
Journal version in IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 65(11): 68296852, 2019. ieee
Other Machine Learning and Statistics:
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Ilias Diakonikolas and Rocco A. Servedio: Learning Poisson Binomial Distributions.
In the 44th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2012. arXiv
Algorithmica, 72(1):316357, 2015. Special Issue on New Theoretical Challenges in Machine Learning. Invited. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Christos Tzamos and Manolis Zampetakis: Ten Steps of EM Suffice for Mixtures of Two Gaussians.
In the 30th Annual Conference on Learning Theory, COLT 2017. Preliminary version presented at NeurIPS 2016 Workshop on NonConvex Optimization for Machine Learning. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Christos Tzamos and Manolis Zampetakis: A Converse to Banach's Fixed Point Theorem and its CLS Completeness.
In the 50th Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing, STOC 2018. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Dhruv Rohatgi, Manolis Zampetakis: ConstantExpansion Suffices for Compressed Sensing with Generative Priors.
In the 34th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2020. Spotlight. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Qinxuan Pan: SampleOptimal and Efficient Learning of Tree Ising models.
In the 53rd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2021. arXiv. twitter summary
Research Highlights, Slides, Videos
Quick Description and Links: I work on Computation Theory and its interface with Game Theory, Economics, Probability Theory, Machine Learning and Statistics.
My work has studied Equilibrium Complexity, Mechanism Design,
and the interface of Property Testing and HighDimensional Statistics.
My current work studies Machine Learning settings, which deviate from the classical, yet too idealized, paradigm wherein
multiple independent samples from the distribution of interest are available for learning. We
consider settings where data is biased, dependent or strategic.
Learn more about this work here:
Equilibrium Computation and Machine Learning
A central question in Machine Learning, motivated in part by adversarial training applications, such
as GANs and adversarial attacks, as well as broader multiagent learning settings wherein agents learn, choose actions and receive rewards in a shared environment,
is whether the success of gradient descent and its variants in identifying local optima in minimization problems involving nonconvex objectives
can be replicated in minmax optimization problems or more general equilibrium/multiobjective optimization problems. The challenge
encountered in practice is that gradient descent and its variants have a hard time solving minmax optimization problems with non convexconcave
objectives, exhibiting oscillatory behavior and/or hardly converging to meaningful solutions.
We build bridges to the complexity of fixed points and equilibrium computation problems, to prove intractability results for minmax optimization,
establishing a stark separation between minimization and minmaximization. In particular, we show that any firstorder method such as gradient descent
(accessing the objective using its values and the values of its gradient) will have to make exponentially many queries to compute even an approximate
local minmax equilibrium of a Lipschitz and smooth objective, and that no method at all (firstorder, secondorder, or whatever) can do this in polynomial time, subject to the complexity
theoretic assumption that the complexity classes P and PPAD are different, i.e. we show that the problem is PPADcomplete.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Stratis Skoulakis, Manolis Zampetakis: The Complexity of Constrained MinMax Optimization.
In the 53rd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2021. arXiv. twitter summary
In the balance, these results establish the existence of a methodological roadblock in applying or extending Deep Learning to multiagent settings.
While postulating a complex parametric model for some learning agent and training the model using gradient descent has been a successful framework in singleagent settings, choosing
complex models for a bunch of different agents and having them train their models via
competing gradient descent procedures is just not going to work, even in twoagent settings, and even when one compromises on the solution concept, namely
shooting for approximate and local minmax equilibria.
Indeed, our work advocates that progress in multiagent learning
will be unlocked via modeling and methodological insights, as well as better
clarity about the type of solution that is reasonable and attainable, combining ideas from Game Theory and Economics with Machine Learning and Optimization. Consistent
with that view we identify families of multiagent learning problems with structure, wherein equilibrium learning is tractable.
 TwoPlayer ZeroSum Stochastic Games:
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Dylan Foster, Noah Golowich: Independent Policy Gradient Methods for Competitive Reinforcement Learning.
In the 34th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2020. arXiv
 MinMax Problems with cohypomonotone objectives:
 Jelena Diakonikolas, Constantinos Daskalakis, Michael I. Jordan: Efficient Methods for Structured NonconvexNonconcave MinMax Optimization.
In the 24th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics (AISTATS), AISTATS 2021. arXiv
 Fast Equilibrium Learning in multiplayer games with convex objectives
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Maxwell Fishelson, Noah Golowich: NearOptimal NoRegret Learning in General Games.
In the 35th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2021. Oral. arXiv
 LastIterate Convergence Results for Gradient Descent, ExtraGradient, and Optimistic Gradient Descent in minmax problems with (non)convex(non)concave objectives:
 Noah Golowich, Sarath Pattathil, Constantinos Daskalakis: Tight lastiterate convergence rates for noregret learning in multiplayer games.
In the 34th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2020. arXiv
 Noah Golowich, Sarath Pattathil, Constantinos Daskalakis, Asuman Ozdaglar: Last Iterate is Slower than Averaged Iterate in Smooth ConvexConcave Saddle Point Problems.
In the 33nd Annual Conference on Learning Theory, COLT 2020. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Ioannis Panageas: LastIterate Convergence: ZeroSum Games and Constrained MinMax Optimization.
In the 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science (ITCS) conference, ITCS 2019. arXiv.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Ioannis Panageas: The Limit Points of (Optimistic) Gradient Descent in MinMax Optimization.
In the 32nd Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2018. arXiv.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Andrew Ilyas, Vasilis Syrgkanis, Haoyang Zeng: Training GANs with Optimism.
In the 6th International Conference on Learning Representations, ICLR 2018. arXiv.
Learning from Biased Data
Censoring and truncation are common ways in which the training data are biased samples from the distribution of interest. They
can be caused by instrument failures or saturation effects, badly designed experiments or data collection campaigns, ethical or privacy constraints
preventing the use of all data that is available, or societal biases which are reflected in the available data. It is wellunderstood that training
a model on data that is censored or truncated can give rise to a biased model, which makes incorrect predictions, or disproportionately correct predictions,
and which replicates the biases in its training data. In the following figure, data produced by a linear model (on the left) are truncated according to their
label (on the right) making the naive linear fit incorrect. Is there a way to recover from this?
Inference from truncated and censored samples has a long history, going back to Galton, Pearson & Lee, and Fisher, who developed techniques for estimating
Normal distributions from truncated samples, using respectively curve fitting, the method of moments, and maximum likelihood estimation. The topic was further
developed in Statistics and Econometrics for more general distributions and regression problems. Finally, truncation and censoring
of data has received lots of study in Machine Learning and the field of domain adaptation. Despite several decades of work on these problems and their
practical importance, however, known estimation methods are computationally inefficient or have suboptimal statistical rates, especially in
highdimensional settings, and even for the most basic problems such as truncated Gaussian estimation and truncated linear regression.
We build connections to highdimensional probability, harmonic analysis and optimization to develop computationally and statistically efficient
methods for solving highdimensional, parametric or nonparametric statistical learning tasks with truncated data, which had evaded efficient methods. These
include estimation from truncated data of multidimensional Gaussians, linear, logistic and probit regression models, as well as nonparametric multidimenionsal
distributions with smooth logdensities. The figure shows an appilcation of our method to truncated linear regression, wherein we are aiming to estimate a linear model as well as the noise variance
when the observations from the model are truncated according to their labels. The naive fit is shown in red, the true model
in blue, and our prediction in green.
Interestingly, our results are obtained by instantiating to these learning tasks a broader learning framework, based on maximum likelihood
estimation and stochastic gradient descent, which is modular and can accommodate much broader learning tasks beyond those for which theorems
can be obtained, including models that are expressible via Deep Neural Networks. As such, we develop a Machine Learning framework that can exploit
software and hardware optimizations as well as models developed in Deep Learning to extend its reach to the more uncharted territory of dealing with
truncation and censoring phenomena in the data.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Themis Gouleakis, Christos Tzamos, Manolis Zampetakis: Efficient Statistics, in High Dimensions, from Truncated Samples.
In the 59th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2018. arXiv.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Themis Gouleakis, Christos Tzamos, Manolis Zampetakis: Computationally and Statistically Efficient Truncated Regression.
In the 32nd Annual Conference on Learning Theory, COLT 2019. arXiv.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Andrew Ilyas, Manolis Zampetakis: A Theoretical and Practical Framework for Regression and Classification from Truncated Samples.
In the 23rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, AISTATS 2020. arXiv.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Dhruv Rohatgi, Manolis Zampetakis: Truncated Linear Regression in High Dimensions.
In the 34th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2020. arXiv
Learning from Dependent Data and Statistical Physics
Statistical inference and machine learning methods commonly assume access to independent observations
from the phenomenon of interest. This assumption that the available data are independent samples is, of course, too strong. In many applications,
variables are observed on nodes of a network, or some spatial or temporal domain, and are dependent. Examples abound in financial, epidemiological, geographical, and meteorological,
applications, and dependencies naturally arise in social networks through peer effects, whose study has been recently explored in topics as diverse
as criminal activity, welfare participation, school achievement, participation in retirement plans, obesity, etc. Estimating models that combine peer
and individual effects to predict behavior has been challenging, and for many standard statistical inference tasks even consistency results are ellusive.
Is it possible to have a statistical learning theory for dependent data?
We develop a PAClearning framework which extends VC dimension and other measures of learning complexity to the data dependent setting, wherein training
samples and test samples are all jointly sampled from a highdimensional distribution. This general framework accommodates weakly dependent data, where the
strength of the dependencies is measured via classical notions of temperature in statistical physics.
 Yuval Dagan, Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala, Siddhartha Jayanti: Generalization and learning under Dobrushin's condition.
In the 32nd Annual Conference on Learning Theory, COLT 2019. arXiv.
In more structured models, such as autoregressive linear models and networked logistic regression models we have developed estimation methods that accommodate
strong data dependencies, as long as the temperature is lower bounded by some constant.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala, Ioannis Panageas: Regression from Dependent Observations.
In the 51st Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing, STOC 2019. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala, Ioannis Panageas: Logistic regression with peergroup effects via inference in higherorder Ising models.
In the 23rd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, AISTATS 2020. arXiv.
As a byproduct of our work, we show concentration and anticoncentration of measure results for functions of dependent variables, advancing the
stateoftheart in highdimensional probability & statistical physics on this topic. These can be leveraged to obtain a framework for learning Ising models from one, a few, or many samples.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala and Gautam Kamath: Concentration of Multilinear Functions of the Ising Model with Applications to Network Data.
In the 31st Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2017. arXiv
 Yuval Dagan, Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala, Anthimos Vardis Kandiros: Learning Ising Models from One or Multiple Samples.
In the 53rd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2021. arXiv
We thus unify under one umbrella two strands of literature on estimating Ising models:
(1) a renaissance of recent work in Computer Science on estimating them from multiple independent samples under minimal assumptions about the model's
interaction matrix; and (2) a growing literature in Probability Theory on estimating them from one sample in restrictive settings.
In particular,
we provide guarantees for onesample estimation, which quantify the estimation error in terms of the metric entropy of a family of
interaction matrices. As corollaries of our main theorem, we derive bounds when the model's interaction matrix is a (sparse) linear combination
of known matrices, or it belongs to a finite set, or to a highdimensional manifold. Our result handles multiple independent samples
by viewing them as one sample from a larger model, and can be used to derive estimation bounds that are qualitatively similar to stateoftheart in
the multiplesample literature.
Equilibrium Complexity
My Ph.D. research examines whether rational, strategic agents may arrive,
through their interaction, at a state where no single one of them would be better off by changing their own strategy unless others did
so as well. Such a state is called Nash equilibrium, in honor of John Nash, who showed that such a state always exists. It is commonly
used in Game Theory to predict the outcome arising through the interaction of strategic individuals in situations of conflict.
With Paul Goldberg and Christos Papadimitriou, I show that in complex systems Nash equilibrium can be computationally unachievable. This
implies that it is not always justifiable or relevant to study the Nash equilibria of a system.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Paul W. Goldberg and Christos H. Papadimitriou: The Complexity of Computing a Nash Equilibrium.
In the 38th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2006.
Journal version as SIAM Journal on Computing, 39(1), 195259, May 2009. (Invited, special issue for STOC 2006.) pdf
Expository article in Communications of the ACM 52(2):8997, 2009. (Invited.) pdf
My dissertation, focusing on this work, received the 2008 ACM Doctoral Dissertation Award. With Paul Goldberg and Christos Papadimitriou, I also received the inaugural Kalai Prize from the
Game Theory Society, with the following citation: "This paper made key conceptual and technical contributions in an illustrious line of work on the complexity of computing Nash
equilibrium. It also highlights the necessity of constructing practical algorithms that compute equilibria efficiently on important subclasses of games."
Here is a blog post from the congress by Paul. In 2011, our same work was awarded the 2011 SIAM Outstanding Paper Prize.
In more recent work I've shown that even arriving at an approximate Nash equilibrium can be computationally intractable, and I've identified families of games with structure where (approximate) Nash equilibria are tractable.

Constantinos Daskalakis: On the Complexity of Approximating a Nash Equilibrium.
In the 22nd Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, SODA 2011.
ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG), 9(3): 23, 2013. Special Issue for SODA 2011. Invited. pdf
 Constantinos Daskalakis and Christos Papadimitriou: Approximate Nash Equilibria in Anonymous Games.
Journal of Economic Theory, 156:207245, 2015. pdf
Journal version of papers in FOCS 2007, FOCS 2008, and STOC 2009.
 Yang Cai, Ozan Candogan, Constantinos Daskalakis and Christos Papadimitriou: Zerosum Polymatrix Games: A Generalization of Minmax.
Mathematics of Operations Research, 41(2): 648655, 2016. pdf
Journal version of papers in ICALP 2009 and SODA 2011.
Further Resources:
 video recording of tutorial on Complexity of Equilibria, at Simons Insitute for Theory of Computation, August 2015
 survey article on the complexity of Nash equilibria, which appeared in a Computer Science Review special volume dedicated to Christos Papadimitriou's work
Mechanism Design
(image credit)
Mechanism design, sometimes called "inverse Game Theory," studies how to design incentives that promote a desired objective in the
outcome of the strategic interaction between agents. Examples include designing an election protocol that ensures the election of the best candidate,
designing a procedure for allocating public resources in order to maximize the social welfare from the allocation, and designing an auction for
selling paintings that maximizes the auctioneer's revenue. In all these cases, the design challenge lies in the fact that the designer's objective is not
aligned with that of each strategic agent: a voter wants to maximize the chance that her favorite candidate is elected, while a bidder wants to maximize his own utility.
So the right incentives need to be put in place in order to incentivize the agents to behave in a manner that promotes the designer's objective, as much as
this is feasible.
Mechanism design has received a lot of study in Economics since the 1960s, and has found a plethora of applications in practice
such as in the design of online markets and the sale of radio spectrum to telecoms by governments, but many challenges remain. My group has focused on the challenge of
multidimensional mechanism design,
which targets mechanism design settings in which the preferences of the agents are multidimensional, e.g. selling multiple items in an auction, multiple radiofrequencies, etc. While maximizing social welfare in this setting can be achieved with the
celebrated VCG mechanism, the understanding of other objectives such as revenue optimization is quite limited. With Yang Cai and Matt Weinberg, I provide an
algorithmic framework
for computing optimal mechanisms for arbitrary objectives.
 Yang Cai, Constantinos Daskalakis and Matt Weinberg: Understanding Incentives: Mechanism Design becomes Algorithm Design.
In the 54th IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, FOCS 2013. arxiv
An application of our framework provides an
algorithmic generalization
of Myerson's celebrated singleitem revenueoptimal auction to the multiitem setting. Given the auctioneer's information about the bidders, in the form of a distribution over their preferences over items and bundles of items, our algorithmic framework efficiently
computes a revenueoptimal auction.
 Yang Cai, Constantinos Daskalakis and Matt Weinberg: An Algorithmic Characterization of MultiDimensional Mechanisms.
In the 44th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2012. ECCC Report.
 Yang Cai, Constantinos Daskalakis and Matt Weinberg: Optimal MultiDimensional Mechanism Design: Reducing Revenue to Welfare Maximization.
In the 53rd Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS), FOCS 2012. arxiv
In work with Alan Deckelbaum and Christos Tzamos, we obtain analytical characterizations of revenueoptimal multiitem mechanisms in the singlebuyer setting, using optimal transport theory.
These results are contained in our Econometrica paper below, whose preliminary form received the Best Paper Award at the ACM Conference on Economics and Computation in 2013.
Also below is a survey article I wrote about multiitem acutions.
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Alan Deckelbaum and Christos Tzamos: Mechanism Design via Optimal Transport.
In the 14th ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce, EC 2013. Best Paper and Best Student Paper Award.
pdf
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Alan Deckelbaum and Christos Tzamos: Strong Duality for a MultipleGood Monopolist.
In the 16th ACM Conference on Economics and Computation (EC), EC 2015.
Journal version as Econometrica, 85(3):735767, 2017. arXiv
Futher resources:
 Slides on Algorithmic Bayesian Mechanism Design from an EC 2014 tutorial with Cai and Weinberg.
 video recording of tutorial on Algorithmic Mechanism Design, at Simons Insitute for Theory of Computation
HighDimensional Statistics & Property Testing
Statistics has traditionally focused on the asymptotic analysis of tests, as the number of samples tends to infinity. Moreover,
statistical tests typically only detect certain types of deviations
from the null hypothesis, or are designed to select between a null and an alternative hypothesis that are fixed distributions
or are from parametric families of distributions. Motivated by applications where the
sample size is small
relative to the support of the distribution, which arises naturally in highdimensional settings,
the field of Property Testing has aimed at rethinking the foundations of Statistics in the small sample regime,
placing emphasis on accommodating composite and nonparametric hypotheses, as well as detecting all rather than some deviations from the null.
In a NeurIPS'15 spotlight paper with Acharya and Kamath, we provide statistical tests for testing nonparametric properties of distributions, such
monotonicty, unimodality, logconcavity, monotone hazard rate, in the nonasymptotic regime and with tight control for type II errors. Our tests
are derived from a general testing framework we provide, based on a robust and sampleoptimal goodnessoffit test.
 Jayadev Acharya, Constantinos Daskalakis and Gautam Kamath: Optimal Testing for Properties of Distributions.
In the 29th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2015. Spotlight Paper. arXiv
video recording from a talk at UT Austin, October 2015.
Here is also a surveyish paper I wrote on nonasymptotic statistical hypothesis testing with Kamath and Wright:
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Gautam Kamath and John Wright: Which Distribution Distances are Sublinearly Testable?.
In the 29th Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, SODA 2018. arXiv
Our more recent work has focused on highdimensional testing problems:
 Constantinos Daskalakis and Qinxuan Pan: Square Hellinger Subadditivity for Bayesian Networks and its Applications to Identity Testing.
In the 30th Annual Conference on Learning Theory, COLT 2017. arXiv
 Constantinos Daskalakis, Nishanth Dikkala and Gautam Kamath: Testing Ising Models
In the 29th Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, SODA 2018. arXiv
Journal version in IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 65(11): 68296852, 2019. ieee
on testing causal models:
 Jayadev Acharya, Arnab Bhattacharyya, Constantinos Daskalakis, Saravanan Kandasamy: Learning and Testing Causal Models with Interventions.
In the 32nd Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS), NeurIPS 2018. arXiv.
and on testing while respecting the privacy of the sample:
 Bryan Cai, Constantinos Daskalakis and Gautam Kamath: Priv'IT: Private and Sample Efficient Identity Testing.
In the 34th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2017. arXiv
Here are slides from a tutorial I gave on this line of work at Greek Stochastics Theta.
Links to Selected Talks, Videos, Slides
talk recording: Three ways Machine Learning fails and what to do about them, Columbia University Distinguished Lecture in CS, September 2020
talk recording: The Complexity of MinMax Optimization, Montreal Machine Learning and Optimization, July 2020
talk recording: Robust Learning from Censored Data, MITMSR Trustworthy and Robust AI Collaboration Workshop, June 2020
talk recording: Equilibria, Fixed Points, and Computational Complexity, Nevanlinna Prize Lecture, International Congress of Mathematicians, Rio de Janeiro, 1 August 2018
talk recording: Complexity and Algorithmic Game Theory I (Equilibrium Complexity) and II (Mechanism Design) at Simons Insitute for Theory of Computation, Special Semester on Economics and Computation, August 2015
talk recording: Testing Properties of Distributions, UT Austin, October 2015
slides: Distribution Property Testing Tutorial, at Greek Stochastics Theta workshop
slides: Algorithmic Bayesian Mechanism Design, from EC 2014 tutorial with Yang Cai and Matt Weinberg.
my students
Current PHD students: Yuval Dagan, Max Fishelson, Andrew Ilyas, Noah Golowich, Vardis Kandiros
Undergraduate researchers: Enrico Micali, Dhruv Rohatgi, Patroklos Stefanou, Rui Yao
Graduated students (in order of graduation):
Yang Cai (Yale CS and Economics Assistant Professor)
Matt Weinberg (Princeton CS Assistant Professor)
Alan Deckelbaum (Renaissance Technologies)
Christos Tzamos (UWMadison CS Assistant Professor)
Gautam Kamath (University of Waterloo CS Assistant Professor)
Nishanth Dikkala (Google SVC)
Manolis Zampetakis (Postdoc, UC Berkeley)
Postdocs:
Nick Gravin (Associate Professor, Shanghai University of Finance and Economics)
Nima Haghpanah (Assistant Professor, Penn State Economics)
Ioannis Panageas (Assistant Professor, Singapore University of Technology and Design)
some general audience articles about my work
teaching
 6.867: Machine Learning, Fall 2020
 6.046/18.410: Design and Analysis of Algorithms, Fall 2019
 6.890: LearningAugmented Algorithms, Spring 2019
 6.853: Topics in Algorithmic Game Theory: Algorithmic Game Theory and Data Science, Spring 2019
 6.046/18.410: Design and Analysis of Algorithms, Fall 2018
 6.883: Science of Deep Learning: Bridging Theory and Practice, Spring 2018
 6.853: Topics in Algorithmic Game Theory: Algorithmic Game Theory and Data Science, Spring 2017
 6.006: Introduction to Algorithms, Spring 2017
 6.046/18.410: Design and Analysis of Algorithms, Spring 2016
 6.891: Games, Decision, and Computation, Spring 2015
 6.046/18.410: Design and Analysis of Algorithms, Fall 2014
 6.S080: Introduction to Inference, Spring 2014
 6.891: Games, Decision, and Computation, Fall 2013
 6.046/18.410: Design and Analysis of Algorithms, Spring 2013
 6.006: Introduction to Algorithms, Spring 2012
 6.853: Topics in Algorithmic Game Theory, Fall 2011
 6.896: Probability and Computation, Spring 2011
 6.006: Introduction to Algorithms, Fall 2010
 6.896: Topics in Algorithmic Game Theory, Spring 2010
 6.006: Introduction to Algorithms, Fall 2009
service & outreach
Editorial
 Editorial Board, International Journal of Game Theory (IJGT), 20122018
 Advisory Editor, Games and Economic Behavior (GEB)
 Special Issue Editor, Games and Economic Behavior (GEB) special issue for STOC, FOCS, SODA 2013
 Special Issue Editor, SIAM Journal on Computing (SICOMP) special issue of STOC 2015
 Conference Program Committees: SODA 2008, EC 2009, SAGT 2009, WAOA 2009, STOC 2010, ICALP 2010,
EC 2011, EC 2012, EC 2013, STOC 2013, ITCS 2014, EC 2014, ITCS 2015, STOC 2015, EC 2015, EC 2016, EC 2017 (general chair), ICML 2018, COLT 2020, EC 2020, NeurIPS 2020
Organization
Scientific Advisory Board, Simons Insitute for Theory of Computation, 20182020
MIT Primes Program Supervisor
