http://people.csail.mit.edu/jaffer/convect | |

## Convection Articles |

- Natural Convection Heat Transfer from an Isothermal Plate
- Skin-Friction and Forced Convection from Rough and Smooth Plates
- Turbulent Mixed Convection from an Isothermal Plate
- Convection Measurement Apparatus and Methodology
- Supplementary Data

Aubrey G. Jaffer

There are comprehensive heat transfer models for laminar natural convection from downward-facing and vertical plates, but not for upward-facing plates. Moreover, there is no comprehensive heat transfer theory for turbulent natural convection from an external plate in any orientation.

The fundamental laws of thermodynamics make no distinction between laminar and turbulent flows. Natural convection is a non-reversible heat-engine which converts the temperature difference between an object and fluid into fluid flow. From the thermodynamic constraints on heat-engine efficiency, this investigation derives formulas for the natural convection flow and heat transfer from isothermal flat plates. Each resulting formula applies to both laminar and turbulent convection.

The heat transfer formulas have root-mean-squared relative error (RMSRE) between 2% and 6% from fifteen of eighteen data-sets taken from seven peer-reviewed articles. These data-sets test circular, rectangular, and inclined rectangular plates, laminar and turbulent convection, Prandtl numbers from 0.024 to 2200, and twelve orders of magnitude of Rayleigh numbers.

Natural Convection Heat Transfer from an Isothermal Plate

Aubrey G. Jaffer

Since the 1930s, theories of skin-friction drag from plates with rough surfaces have been based on analogy to turbulent flow within pipes having rough interiors. Failure of this analogy at low Reynolds number (

Re) flow rates has frustrated attempts to create a comprehensive theory.By introducing the concept of self-similar roughness, this investigation derives formulas for a plate's skin-friction drag coefficient and turbulent forced convection given its root-mean-squared (RMS) height-of-roughness and isotropic spatial period. These formulas match measurements from Pimenta, Moffat, and Kays (1975), Bergstrom, Akinlade, and Tachie (2005), and experiments conducted for this investigation within their expected measurement uncertainties.

Building on its analysis of self-similar roughness, this investigation also derives a formula for the skin-friction coefficient of a smooth plate; this formula matches measurements from Smith and Walker (1959) and Spalding and Chi (1964) spanning four orders of magnitude of

Rewith 0.75% RMS relative error. Its new formula for smooth turbulent forced convection is in agreement with Lienhard (2020), while expanding the range to all fluid Prandtl numbers.

Skin-Friction and Forced Convection from Rough and Smooth Plates

Aubrey G. Jaffer

When forced flow over an isothermal plate is turbulent, its total mixed convection can be computed as an algebraic function of only the forced and natural convections and the orientation of that surface.

Presented are new correlations for turbulent mixed convection from an isothermal rectangular surface having at least one horizontal edge and flow parallel to an edge of that surface.

Also presented are series of total convection measurements at Reynolds numbers from 2500 to 25000 of the five combinations of horizontal and vertical plate orientation with turbulent horizontal and vertical flow, as well as at some intermediate angles.

Turbulent Mixed Convection from an Isothermal Plate

Aubrey G. Jaffer

Presented are the design and operating methodology of an apparatus constructed to make measurements of forced convection from an isothermal plate with a precisely rough surface. Measurements with a 2.3% root-sum-squared measurement uncertainty were achieved.

Mixed convection measurements at various plate orientations were also made, driving the development of a theory of turbulent mixed convection from any rectangular plate having at least one horizontal edge.

Convection Measurement Apparatus and Methodology

In the temperature versus time graphs in the supplementary files, the green, blue, and black traces are the plate, (insulated) back, and ambient temperatures respectively. The upper red trace is a simulation of the plate temperature with the back and average ambient temperatures as inputs. The middle red trace is a simulation of the back temperature with the plate and ambient temperatures as inputs. The lower red line is the ambient temperature averaged over the measurement period.

The diamonds on the plate temperature trace mark the beginning and end of the measurement period, the ending temperature difference with ambient being at most half of the peak temperature difference with ambient. The simulated plate temperature is reset to the real plate temperature at the first diamond.

Underneath each temperature graph is a graph of the air velocity versus time for mixed convection runs and Rayleigh number versus time for natural convection runs.

Natural Convection | |
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natural.pdf | Natural Convection at a dozen Rayleigh numbers in vertical and horizontal orientations. |

angles.pdf | Natural Convection at angles from −90 to +90 |

Mixed Convection | |

mixed-up.pdf | 3mm roughness face up; horizontal forced flow |

mixed-up.pdf | 1mm roughness face up; horizontal forced flow |

mixed-aid.pdf | 3mm roughness face vertical; upward forced flow |

mixed-aid2.pdf | 1mm roughness face vertical; upward forced flow |

mixed-vt.pdf | 3mm roughness face vertical; horizontal forced flow |

mixed-vt.pdf | 1mm roughness face vertical; horizontal forced flow |

mixed-opp.pdf | 3mm roughness face vertical; downward forced flow |

mixed-opp.pdf | 1mm roughness face vertical; downward forced flow |

mixed-dn.pdf | 3mm roughness face down; horizontal forced flow |

mixed-dnnt.pdf | 1mm roughness face down; horizontal forced flow |

mixed-aid+84.pdf | 1mm roughness face down inclined aiding +84.5° |

mixed-opp+85.pdf | 1mm roughness face down inclined opposing +84.5° |

Zip of Supplementary Files | |

supplementary.zip | Zip Archive of All Files |

Copyright © 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022 Aubrey Jaffer

I am a guest and not a member of the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
My actions and comments do not reflect in any way on
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agj @ alum.mit.edu | Go Figure! |