Aubrey G. Jaffer
Natural convection heat transfer formulas which are accurate over a wide range of Rayleigh numbers (Ra) are known for vertical and downward-facing plates, but not for upward-facing plates. From the thermodynamic constraints on heat-engine efficiency, this investigation derives formulas for natural convection flow and heat transfer from upward-facing, isothermal plates. The union of four peer-reviewed data-sets spanning 1<Ra<1012 has 5.4% root-mean-squared relative error (RMSRE) relative to this new heat transfer formula.
This novel approach derives a formula nearly identical to Churchill and Chu (1975) for vertical plates at 1<Ra<1012, and improves the Schulenberg (1985) formula for downward-facing plates from 4.6% RMSRE to 3.8% on four peer-reviewed data-sets spanning 106<Ra<1012.
The introduction of the harmonic mean as the characteristic-length metric for vertical and downward-facing plates extends those rectangular plate formulas to other convex shapes, achieving 3.8% RMSRE on vertical disk convection from Hassani and Hollands (1987) and 3.2% from Kobus and Wedekind (1995).
Building on the work of Fujii and Imura (1972) and Raithby and Hollands (1998), the three orthogonal plate formulas are combined to calculate the heat transfer at any plate inclination, achieving 4.7% RMSRE on the inclined plate measurements from Fujii and Imura.
Natural Convection Heat Transfer from an Isothermal Plate
This paper received split recommendations (1 accept; 2 reject) from reviewers at the 2 journals it was submitted to in 2021 and 2022. Two of the "reject" recommendations indicated that the reviewers had not read beyond the abstract. Such is the peer-review system.
Two accepts from six reviewers would indicate a reviewer "accept" rate around 1/3. The probability of 2 or 3 "accept" recommendations out of 3 is then 3*(2/27)+1/27=26%. If the paper is submitted to (up to) 3 additional journals, the probability of getting accepted is 59%. Hopefully, that will happen before I run out of appropriate, peer-reviewed journals.
Aubrey G. Jaffer
Since the 1930s, theories of skin-friction drag from plates with rough surfaces have been based on an analogy to turbulent flow within pipes having rough interiors. Failure of this analogy at low Reynolds number (Re) flow rates has frustrated attempts to create a comprehensive theory.
By introducing the concept of self-similar roughness, this investigation derives formulas for a plate's skin-friction drag coefficient and forced convection given its characteristic-length, root-mean-squared (RMS) height-of-roughness, and isotropic spatial period. Compared with this novel theory, the RMS relative error of measurements from Pimenta, Moffat, and Kays (1975) is 4.5%; from Bergstrom, Akinlade, and Tachie (2005) wire meshes and perforated plates, it is 3.3% and 4.2%, respectively; from experiments conducted for this investigation, it is 1.8%.
Building on its analysis of self-similar roughness, this investigation also derives a formula for the skin-friction coefficient of a smooth plate; this formula matches measurements from Smith and Walker (1959) and Spalding and Chi (1964) spanning 105≤Re≤109 with 0.75% RMS relative error. Its new formula for smooth turbulent forced convection is in agreement with Lienhard (2020), while expanding the range to all Prandtl numbers.
Skin-Friction and Forced Convection from Rough and Smooth Plates
Aubrey G. Jaffer
When forced flow over an isothermal plate is turbulent, its total mixed convection can be computed as an algebraic function of only the forced and natural convections and the orientation of that surface.
Presented are new correlations for turbulent mixed convection from an isothermal rectangular surface having at least one horizontal edge and flow parallel to an edge of that surface.
Also presented are series of total convection measurements at Reynolds numbers from 2500 to 25000 of the five combinations of horizontal and vertical plate orientation with turbulent horizontal and vertical flow, as well as at some intermediate angles.
Turbulent Mixed Convection from an Isothermal Plate
Aubrey G. Jaffer
Presented are the design and operating methodology of an apparatus constructed to make measurements of forced convection from an isothermal plate with a precisely rough surface. Measurements with a 2.4% root-sum-squared measurement uncertainty were achieved.
Mixed convection measurements at various plate orientations were also made, driving the development of a theory of turbulent mixed convection from any rectangular plate having at least one horizontal edge.
Convection Measurement Apparatus and Methodology
Apparatus Electrical Schematics (2 pages)
Apparatus Operating Instructions
In the temperature versus time graphs in the supplementary files, the green, blue, and black traces are the plate, (insulated) back, and ambient temperatures respectively. The upper red trace is a simulation of the plate temperature with the back and average ambient temperatures as inputs. The middle red trace is a simulation of the back temperature with the plate and ambient temperatures as inputs. The lower red line is the ambient temperature averaged over the measurement period.
The diamonds on the plate temperature trace mark the beginning and end of the measurement period, the ending temperature difference with ambient being at most half of the peak temperature difference with ambient. The simulated plate temperature is reset to the real plate temperature at the first diamond.
Underneath each temperature graph is a graph of the air velocity versus time for mixed convection runs and Rayleigh number versus time for natural convection runs.
|natural.pdf||Natural Convection at a dozen Rayleigh numbers in vertical and horizontal orientations.|
|angles.pdf||Natural Convection at angles from −90 to +90|
|mixed-up.pdf||3mm roughness face up; horizontal forced flow|
|mixed-up.pdf||1mm roughness face up; horizontal forced flow|
|mixed-aid.pdf||3mm roughness face vertical; upward forced flow|
|mixed-aid2.pdf||1mm roughness face vertical; upward forced flow|
|mixed-vt.pdf||3mm roughness face vertical; horizontal forced flow|
|mixed-vt.pdf||1mm roughness face vertical; horizontal forced flow|
|mixed-opp.pdf||3mm roughness face vertical; downward forced flow|
|mixed-opp.pdf||1mm roughness face vertical; downward forced flow|
|mixed-dn.pdf||3mm roughness face down; horizontal forced flow|
|mixed-dnnt.pdf||1mm roughness face down; horizontal forced flow|
|mixed-aid+84.pdf||1mm roughness face down inclined aiding +84.5°|
|mixed-opp+85.pdf||1mm roughness face down inclined opposing +84.5°|
|Zip of Supplementary Files|
|supplementary.zip||Zip Archive of All Files|
I am a guest and not a member of the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
My actions and comments do not reflect in any way on
|agj @ alum.mit.edu||Go Figure!|